No. 6, 1907, December, American Magazine of Aeronautics
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Vol. I December, 1907 No. 6
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Editorial—Aero Club of America—New Aero Clubs in America—Ballooning and How I Became Addicted to the Habit—Roshon Aeroplane—Gordon Bennett, 1907—Bleriot Aeroplane—Santos Dnmont Aeroplane—Pelterie Aeroplane — International Congress Papers — New Aeronautic Books — November Ascensions — Chronology—Notes — Aeronautic Calendar — The Aero Song — Communications—U. S. Army Aeronautics—Aeronautic Societies of the World.
THE NEED FOR A CLUB PARK.
Up to December 1st. lOOj. 5G balloon ascensions have been made by '¿0 members of the Aero Club of America during the year. The majority of these have made but one or two trips each.
This is somewhat better than the record for 11KK; hut it can still be improved upon greatly if in some way the conditions for balloon ascents were made easier. The two balloons of the A. A. are now out of commission and unfit for use: and out of the 300 members there are but 7 privately owned balloons in the club. This means that members must either borrow these balloons or rent or buy balloons from manufacturers, of whom there are two in the club. Messrs. Myers and Stevens.
The cost of pas and rental does not figure so much as the loss of time incident to making a flight. If one goes to Pitts lie! d or North Adams, which are. of course, ideal locations, one loses practically three days' time: and that is under favorable weather conditions.
It does seem that the great need is a park somewhere near New York where private and club balloons may be stored and where gas can be obtained at short notice.
For instance, West Point, in' its scheme of beautifieation and enlargement, could be made a ballooning center for the East. It is a good location and has the advantage of being a military post. We would like to refer to an editorial in the
August number in which n plan was outlined by which the Government might cooperate with aero clubs to their mutual advantage.
If this were not possible, there are other towns along the Hudson "River where gas could he secured, at least after some modification in the plants, still more convenient than West Point. For instance, there is one to mi in mind. 33 miles from Yew York, with trainst at least every hour, and an express stop, where there is a new gas plant. A large three-story brick building adjoins the works, on the same property. This building was intended for purposes in connection with the manufacture of gas but has not heen used up to the present. In this building could he stored balloons and all facilities for repairs and experiments could be installed. The plant can furnish 500,000 feet of gas in ten hours, at the rate of 20.00(1 feet an hour—at least, that is the present rate of manufacture. While the gas is a mixed gas, coal gas could be furnished. Suppose a club should purchase-such a plant and modify it to produce coal gas alone. It could supply the town at the regular rate, pay all expenses and have gas for ascensions without cost.
With good facilities for making flights more members would take advantage of opportunities and there would he more privately owned balloons and more chartered ascents.
Year the same place- is a practically new race track, with buildings, where experiments with flying machines could he conducted. There are machine shops in the town and there seems to be many advantages For general aeronautic work.
It is to he hoped that 1908 will see a great increase in the number of balloon ascents and in aeronautic activity in this country.
AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.
The annual meeting was held November 4, at which the old olticers were reelected. Mr. James Gordon Bennett was elected an honorary member. The Gordon Bennett Cup was officially presented to Herr Oscar Frbsloh, the winner of the contest of that name.
At a meeting of the directors held November 27, the Lahm Cup was awarded to Captain Chas. De F. Chandler in recognition of his flight of 475 miles, from St. Louis, Mo., to Walton, W. Va.. October 17-18.
Yew Members Elected.
Mr. Ralph Upson Mr. A. \\. Morgan
Mr. J. H. Wade, Jr. }lr. W. G. Critchlow.
Members Posted for J']lection.
Mr. De Witt C. Morrell Mr. Williams Welch
Mr. Leroy M. Taylor Mr. A. Holland Forbes
Mr. John D. Parkin. Jr. Mr. William Paine Everts.
The Automobile Club of America kindly offered the privileges of its rooms to
the Aero Club on the occasion of the former's regular monthly dinner and smoker,
Tuesday, December 3.
NEW AERO CLUBS IN AMERICA. Aero Club of New England.
On November 21, at Young's Hotel, Boston, on the 124th anniversary of the first ascent by man in a balloon, was formed the Aero Club of Yew England, with 40 members. Professor A. Lawrence Rotch was elected president; Chas. J. Glidden, 1st vice-president; Frank E. Stanley, 2d vice-president; Alfred R. Shrigley, secretary; Harry 0. Pollard, treasurer; A. Leo Stevens, aeronautical engineer.
Addresses were delivered by Professor A. Lawrence Rotch, Professor W. H.
I'ickering. Messrs. Charles .1. (ilidden. A. V. Wilson. A. Leo Stevens. T. L. Bvmes and L. J. Minahan.
Pittsiield lias been selected as the ottieial park.
some of the founders of the a. c. of n. e.
Tbe Aero Club has ottered a silver eup of the value of $100. donated by the Boston Herald, as a trophy to the pilot of any balloon starting 100 miles from Boston, air line, and landing within 5 miles of Boston Common. Notification must be made 2-i hours before starting of the attempt by any pilot to win the trophy.
The matter of a challenge to the Aero Club of America, the Aero Club of Philadelphia and the Aero Club of St. Louis, for a race of 3\U hours' duration from Pittsfield, Mass.. the winner to be the one landing the greatest distance from Pitts-field within the specified time, was referred to its Contest Committee. Messrs. Ceorge E. McQuesten. Henry Howard and W. E. Eldredge. The competition is limited to balloons of less than 40.000 cubic feet capacity.'
Pittsfield Aero Club.
Tbe Pittsfield Aero Club was formed at the I hotel Wendell. Litlsfield. .Mass.. November loth, with the following otlicers: president. Mr. L. .1. Minahan ; vice-president. Mayor A. H. Bagg; treasurer. Lx-Mayor Daniel Knglaud ; secretary. Mr. Iv. B. Miller, proprietor of the Berkshire Dnihj Eaijle.
It is the intention of the club to purchase a balloon which will be rented during the season to its members. The club can do a great deal towards the encouragement of the sport of ballooning, especially as it is likely that the majority of ascents in this countrv will be from Pittstield.
The Aéronautique Club of Chicago.
On November 22<\ the Aéronautique Club of Chicago was formed, with twenty charter members. A contract has been Jet l'or a balloon and it is expected to hold a series of races at Chicago during the summer of 1908. A cup of the value of $1,000 has already been donated.
The officers are: ]\h\ C. A. Coey. president; Mr. Charles E. Gregory, vice-president; Mr. A. B. 1'errigo, secretary. M 11. C. Foster, treasurer.
Aero Club at Columbus.
The citizens of Columbus, Ohio, are about to form an aero club and secure permanent grounds where annual races may he held and where club members may make ascensions as often as desired.
At a meeting held at the Board of Trade on December 1st the matter was discussed in detail and the raising of funds was referred to a committee.
It is planned to hold a long distance race on next Decoration Day and all members of aero clubs in America owning balloons who wish to take part are requested to communicate with -Mr. Henry I'. JMattach, c/o Neil House. Columbus. A handsome cup will be oll'ered.
Another club is soon to be formed in Louisville, Ny., by Messrs A. I'. Shirley, J. L. Gribble and others.
BALLOONING, AND HOW I BECAME ADDICTED TO THE
By A. Leo Stevens.
Being an address delivered before the Aero Club of Xew England upon the occasion of its organization meeting.
During my early schooldays there was one particular story that impressed more than all the rest—that of a "professor" who was to ascend in a monster balloon. He had allowed two children to get into the car. with permission from their parents, but before the ascent was made a violent storm came up which tore the balloon loose from its moorings, taking the two youngsters on a wild ride. The professor slated that if the children knew enough to pull the rope which hung almost at their hands, they would de-seend safelv to Mother Farth.
The story impressed me so much that I felt that if I had been in the car I would have pulled the cord. I told my father of my feelings and my ambition but he plainly told me I would be frightened to dealh. I waited my chance and every time 1 saw a balloon I was there to help.
I never will forget the first real balloon that I saw, bulging out to its fullest capacity in the public square of my native city. Jt was a beautiful creature to my imagination, and how grandlv it left the earth !
On the next opportunity of seeing a balloon I struck up an acquaintance with the aeronaut, shoveled the iron, carried the acid, helped to haul the water, chop the ice and did all the running, ruining mv knockerbockers with the acid, as I found out the next morning. Father was/interested in the amusement park from which the ascension was to be made. The aeronaut promised to take me up and T worked like a trooper. But the following day when the balloon was inflated he told me the balloon was too small to carry hvo. As the day was Sunday, the Marshall played an important part and the ascent was not allowed to take place until the following day. I tried to persuade my boy .friends to "borrow" the balloon by mistake but the plan failed.
1 told my father I was going up and he replied, "Take safety knickerbockers with you and go as quick as you want," never thinking that J was truly in earnest.
In mv rage, T stole to mv father's hunting outfit, took a large knife and rushed panting up the hill to where the balloon was swaying in the air, full of hydrogen gan. The professor had gone to lunch; J jumped in the car, cut the ropes and left at railroad speed. Xot until I was high in the air did I realize what 1 had done. The whole citv seemed like a mass of Water to me and I crouched down in the basket and thought what father and mother would do to me when I got—back? All this time 1 was travelling at the rate of twenty miles an hour and on peeping over the edge of the basket again 1 found no trace of the earth. Of course, I had no ballast, as it was all cut away when 1 started.
Finally, however, t descended safely on the outskirts of Canton, landing in a tree and tearing my clothes to pieces. The professor claimed the balloon was wrecked and received $o00 from my parents, the cost of my first flight.. A year or two at" tea' this 1 made my second trip and have been "going up" ever since, enjoying life far above the earth.
The first dirigible balloon in this country 1. produced in 1900 and 1 brought to this country, through a Mr. Skinner, a J)e Dion Bouton engine. 1 made several successful flights with this machine and designed many inventions of importance: among them, the sliding balance which enables the operators to set the machine at any angle and the aeroplane arrangement which brings the machine safely to earth. J was the first in the world to put the propeller in the forward end of the ship: as 1 found pulling the load was much steadier than pushing it.
Next vcar there will be balloons in all directions and 1 propose putting out a motor balloon which Avill enable the operator to go in any direction, using the present spherical balloon. 1 will use the motor made by the Aero cY. Marine Motor Co.. right here in Boston. Mr. Washburn has convinced me that it is the greatest motor yet constructed. Shortly we will see the dirigible made of steel and the jouiney from Boston to Europe will be accomplished in two days. The balloon and airship has come to stav and with the present rapid improvements we will accomplish this in less than live years. First we must get our passengers accustomed to the upper air and teach them how to become experienced pilots and acquaint them with the engines of the air. Look iq on the dirigible as a steamship. We could not drive the Lusitania across the ocean at enormous speed unless we applied the power. It is the same with the dirigible. The coming machine will be made of reinforced steel, with great strength and lightness.
A balloon for three costs but $800 and the gas for this balloon. $:>«"), including the help for inflating. Ballooning is the grandest ami least expensive sport in existence; far superior to any other sport of human beings.
Xow that we have formed an aero club here in Boston, let us show the world wh:.t ballooning is. In half a decade we will surpass all other countries.
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS
THE ROSHON AEROPLANE.
The aeroplane of Mr. J. \Y. Poshon. of Harrisburg, Pa., has just been completed but no trials have yet been made. The use of the large number of superposed planes makes a description of it of interest.
The inventor has spaced the surfaces as far apart, one above the other, as the width from front to rear. Along the front of the machine is a set of 13 superimposed, long, narrow canvas planes. The lower of these measures 1 foot by 24 feet and the upper ones are 1 foot by 12. Six feet to the rear is another set identical with those in front.
tiik roshon arroplank.
in addition to the small surfaces are 3 large horizontal ones. Two of these are G feet by 24 and the other G by 12 feet. This gives a total horizontal surface of 840 square feet, with small size. The whole apparatus measures 24 feet wide. 8 feet in depth and is 17 feet high. The weight, is 225 pounds. The motor, 75 pounds, and the open)tor, 115 pounds, bring the total weight ready for flight up to 415 pounds. The, sm-face per pound is 2.02 square feet, a loading of less than ^-pouml per square foot.
The motor is a 7 h.p. Curtiss, driving a propeller 8.5 feet in diameter, geared to 200 r. p. ni. "It is expected to get up preliminary speed by running down hill, in which case the motor may have sufficient power to keep up the speed."
Very little efficiency can be expected from the rear surfaces as they must needs follow in a cm-rent of air which is already traveling downward and can. therefore, offer but little support, unless these rear .surfaces be inclined at a considerably greater angle than those in front, while at the same time these rear surfaces offer practically an equal drift or resistance to forward motion as those in front.
Turning the rear surfaces at a steeper angle would destroy the apparatus's power of automatically maintaining its equilibrium, and when inclining them at a greater angle the only way in which they can be made to cany any considerable portion of the load is to incline the whole apparatus at a very steep angle, something like 20 to 30 degrees with the horizontal, a condition which would involve a tremendously heavy pull of the screws to keep the apparatus afloat, in that, a thrust of over 40 per cent., and possibly even over 5ô per cent, of the total weight of the apparatus would have to be furnished by the screws. Assuming a total weight of 400 pounds would necessitate a screw thrust of 2<>0 and to produce this thrust at living speed would require an engine of upwards of "?Ô h.p.
GORDON BENNETT, 1907.
From the logs of the contestants and various other source* a map has been prepared, showing the actual com se taken by the balloons in this race. A table of the actual distance traveled bv each and the average speed is given below:
Photo by C. W. Bright.
ST. LOUIS ANJOU LOTUS II DUSSELDORF ISLE OE FRANCE UNITED STATES POMMERN
READY TO START, GORDON BENNETT, 1907. The crowd is watching the flight of the pilot balloon sent up by Professor Kotcli.
Actual Speed per
Distance Hour T raveled
Isle de France..................'KS 28
Du^seldorf ....................!>13 2<i
rommern .....................!MM 20
America ......................SIS 2~>
St. Louis .....................;!)S զgt;.-!
Anjon ........................(!»զquot;) 2 1
Abercron .....................i SS 23
Fnited States .................;r><> 43
Lotus 11 ......................lb"-) 21
The average distance would, therefore, be 802.44 miles, at a speed of 27.11 miles
THE NEW BLERIOT, NO. 7.
In its last flight the Bleriot No. G fell from a height of about 75 feet and was so badly damaged that the inventor decided to construct an entirely new machine, embodying several modifications suggested by forme]' experiences.
new bleriot no. 7.
The new machine carries an 8 cylinder Antoinette engine of 50 h.p. It has two large wings in front and two small ones in the rear. Those in front have a total surface of "379.5 square feet; those in the rear, 86 square feet. Behind all is a vertical rudder. The manner of construction has not been changed.
The body of the apparatus is of wood, covered with a layer of paper. The body is >pindie-shaped, of rectangular section, very sharp in front, tapering to still more of a point in the rear.
the bleriot no 6.
The steel and aluminum -l-bladed propeller, with a diameter of 0.88 feet, is
loealed at the extreme front. The length of each blade is :;.28 feet. At 1.000 r.p.m. the pull is from 2 75 to 285 pounds.
The operator is seated in the interior of the body, with the verv ingenious mechanism which operates both the vertical rudder and small horizontal planes at the same time. The total weight of the apparatus, ready to launch, without the operator, is 715 pounds. The body is 22.'.Hi feet long. In the first trial of the machine the rudder behaved poorly and one of the wheels was bent in landing. While the accident was not serious, it sufficed in delav work to some extent.
NEW SANTOS DUMONT AEROPLANE, NO. 19.
This latest aeroplane, which has been nicknamed "The Butterfly." is of an altogether different type from bis former machine. The main framework is of steel tubing, mounted on three rubber-tired wheels, two forward and one in the rear, those in front being slanted inwards to receive the machine vertically should it come down sideways in ronndng a curve. The supporting surface consists of two varnished silk wings. 1(5.7 feet from tip to tip and (>.5(> feet from front to back, stretched over a
motor and propeller of santos dumont's flyer.
bamboo frame. There is a small horizontal hexagonal plane in front at a level with the wheels and two vertical planes of the same shape on either side of the main frame, under the wings. There is also a combination horizontal and vertical rudder in the rear, mounted on a bamboo cardan-shaft 20 feet in length, fitted with a universal joint. The machine weighs, complete. 113.2 pounds. The' 2-bladed propeller is 1.35 meters (4.42 ft.) in diameter, driven bv a 2-cviinder opposed horizontal Dutbeil &- Chambers motor of 17-20 h.p.. which weighs 22 kg. (48.4 Vm\) complete.
THE ESNAULT-PELTERIE AEROPLANE.
The single plane machine of Robert Ksnault-l'elterie resemble.-- very much a butterfly, with flexible wings, mounted on wheels. At the tip of each wing is also a small wheel to prevent damage in case a wing strikes the ground during flight. The total weight of the machine (528 pounds), with operator, is divided as follows: Aeronaut 165; motor and propeller complete with carbureter, pipes, etc.. 121; sustaining surface 132: body 44: horizontal rudder 22. wheels and frame 22: gasolene 22.
The 25 horsepower. 7 cylinder motor weighs complete without screw, ready to start. 00.8 pounds, or 3.87 pounds per horsepower. The crank shaft alone weighs 5.5
pounds. The motor was designed in its entirety by Pelterie. The motor is perfectly balanced by reason of the number and arrangement of the seven cylinders, which assure one explosion at 2-7 the of every revolution.
pei.terie's seven-cylinder motor, showinr cam mechanism.
For each cylinder each individual valve is governed by a rocker insuring admission and expulsion of the gas. One single cam shaft operates all seven valves. There is one carbureter for a group of four cylinders and a second for a group of three.
the esnault-pelterie aeroplane.
M. Pelterie lias tried to make light weight by extreme simplicity of parts without ■detracting from the strength of the motor. In spite of this, the apparatus is solid enough to make 12 trials in two days without mishap.
INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTICAL CONGRESS.
President: Professok Willis L. Moore. Secretary: Dr. Albert Francis Zaiim. Chairman Gen'l Committee: W.m. j. Ham.mer. Chairman Executive Com.: Acccstcs Post. Sec'y Committees: Ernest La Rue Jones.
The addresses, papers and discussions presented to the Congress will he published serially in this magazine and at the earliest date possible bound volumes will be distributed without charge to those holding membership cards in the Congress. Others may purchase the volume at a consistent price when ready or may take advantage of immediate publication by subscribing to this magazine at the regular rate.
In accordance with the program as published in the Xovember number, the informal addresses of the Cordon Bennett contestants and others are concluded before entering upon the printing of the formal papers and discussions.
Following will be found-the addresses of M. Uene Ofasnier, Major Henry B. Hersey and Paul Meckel, their experiences in the Gordon Bennett race and the story of the winning of the Lahm Cup by Capt. Chas. ])e F. Chandler; followed by the paper of Admiral Chester.
My Voyage in the Gordon Bennett, by Rene Gasnier.
1 will try to explain to you a little of the bad luck I had in this race. I started toward the north, until we were almost sixty miles south of Chicago. I was with the other contestants and on the second day I saw two balloons on my right hand, and two balloons ou my left band. In the evening I was very high, at one time almost 1,000 feet. As my balloon was in a good place. I thought 1 could do nothing but remain there. At that height the current was a little south-east, and when 1 crossed the Ohio I crossed it about SO feet under another contestant. T crossed the Alle-ghenies at a part where the mountains are very high. This was a very good spot, because in the Allegheny mountains I had a good wind. 1 was, going almost 30 miles an hour. "When 1 crossed the top of each mountain the wind was much stronger, but between each top of the mountains I was going very slowly.*f After having passed the Allegheny mountains, the next morning the sun rose at about half past five or six o'clock, and at that time the wind was blowing in the south; then 1 went very close to the land with my anchor out, and with my guide rope on the land. T was going southeast. 1 continued a little while south-easterly and then found myself going to the south. When J saw that. 1 saw there was nothing to do but go further down, and I came down and landed in a field at half past six. 1 was sorrv not to go further as when 1 landed 1 still had nine sacks of ballast.
*Prof. Willis L. Moore.—When Mr. Gasnier said he moved slowly between the mountains and swiftly when he was over the mountains, 1 thought it was the principle of water flowing over a dam. Probably that accounted for the swift velocity that he got passing over the top of the mountain, and not very far from it; and when he came over the valley, he encountered a much less velocity of the wind, for the air that carried from over the mountain top went down the mountain side, and he passed on out of it into a lower stratum of air. This is simply a suggestion that came to my mind.
jProf. A. Lawrence T'otch.—I am glad the President brought out this suggestion. It is true, as we found by experiments we made near Mt. Washington last summer. The observations made on the summit of Mt. Washington indicated a very considerably greater velocity than from a kite which floated at the same height over the adjacent valley. How high this velocity continues one does not know. Certainly on a mountain top itself the velocity is very much greater than the velocity in the same height of free air; and I think the suggestions^ of Professor Moore are the correct ones, that the velocity is increased just as in the case of water flowing over a dam.
The Trip of the United States, by Major H. B. Hersey.
I am sorry I cannot tell a hotter story but ] just did the host I could, and will tell you a little about it. In the first place, 1 want to add my testimony to that of Mr. McCoy, in regard to the management of the race as a whole. You must all remember that this was the first balloon race ever held in America. To our French brethren it is an old story. They have their aeronauts thoroughly trained, their attendants for filling balloons, that are tilled thousands of times, and it is easy work for them from long experience. Every year in Paris several races, national or international, are held, but here in America this was our first attempt, and I think, under the circumstances, that our foreign competitors will agree that we did very well in getting the balloons filled promptly with a good quality of gas, and getting them oft' on time without any accidents or disasters of any kind.
I think that the management of this race should be very highly complimented and congratulated on the thorough and efficient way in which they did their work, especially Mi*. Stevens, who had an enormous job on hand, and while thoroughly familiar with handling balloons, he was not familial' with handling races. Captain Baldwin lent his assistance in every way possible and altogether f think it may be considered a wonderfully successful race from every point of view.
The balloon which J had charge of, the United States, the same one which 1 assisted Lieut. Lahm in managing last year, was the second one to go up. We went up a little lighter than 1 would have liked, so that we attained a height of about 000 metres before stopping, and took a course very nearly northwest. This gradually shifted a little more to the north. Two of the balloons. Monsieur Le Blanc's, and the Ponnnern, the German balloon, we could see for some time; the German balloon especially, as it was quite high. We crossed the Missouri Piver just about dark and were gradually working down to the guide rope. A short time later we crossed the Mississippi near the mouth of the Illinois. By this time our course was very nearly due north. We passed between the Illinois Piver and the Mississippi, close to the Illinois at times, at one time passing over it, our guide rope touching the water occasionally. A little motor launch was coming down the river and we hailed them and asked about the place, and the distance from St. Louis and had quite a little chat-with them before we passed out of hearing, asking them to telegraph the Club at St. Louis, which they said they would do.
Luring the night we kept down, the guide rope touching occasionally, hitting the tree tops, and we drew pretty near a straight line north passing Galesburg. We could call the people all night long to know exactly where we were. At different points we could inquire of someone, and then by keeping to our directions, we knew about where we should be, verifying it every time we could hail someone. The altitude was from 300 to 500 feet. Our guide rope was about 300 feet long and it would occasionally touch ; but most of the time it was off the ground. At Macomb, Ills., we hailed a freight train crew lying on a siding waiting for a passenger train to pass, and got our location there; and at several different places up through the state we would find some one. in one place we spoke to the manager of some manufacturing plant where there was quite a high smoke stack, and asked him what place it was. He said: "Macomb; but don't run your damned old balloon into this smoke stack."
The night passed rather pleasantly but toward morning it was rather cool. I was dressed quite warm, but my companion, Mr. Arthur T. Afherholt, did not follow the advice given him and suffered considerably from the cold.
About daylight we wore passing over Northern Illinois, going east or nearly east. We knew that we must be, from the last station inched up, nearly to tha Wisconsin line. Finally we came to a place called Crystal Lake. There were two or three places with a ""Lake" attached to the name. Then Lake Michigan came into view. There was quite a nice little town on its shores but we could not quite make it out at first. There was a peculiar looking large building and as we swung along over it we called out, but could only get the last word, "City." 11 was a short
name and finally we got it: ''Zion City,'' and knew we were passing over Brother Dowie's headquarters. T threw down some cards there for telegraphing in and then we went directly over the lake, with the sun just coming up in the East. We gradually rose, very steadily, going to about 1,500 metres from the lake, and crossed it more than 30 miles an hour, pretty nearly straight east: just a little north of east at the beginning, but the latter part of the distance straight east.
We had crossed Lake Michigan and were able to pick out most of the places that Ave passed. Sometimes we were too high to call down and verify, but then with our map we would draw our pencils across the places that we passed, and afterwards found them to be correct. We finally crossed Michigan, from Lake Michigan to Lake St. Clair. In passing along there we averaged 40 miles an hour, making careful measurements on the map. in crossing Lake St. Clair we could see Detroit very plainly, in fact, we passed over its northern suburbs.
Bight across the centre of Lake St. Clair we went, making, according to our map. 50 miles an hour. Our course then bore a little more to the southeast and we went straight for Lake Erie. We had used a great deal of ballast keeping our equilibrium, or trying to keep it as nearly level as possible, but 1 felt that we had a good chance of crossing Lake Erie all right and heading for Xew York on our course. We had reached the eastern end of Lake Lrie, on the south shore along about Dunkirk. The sand ballast being the most easy to handle. T began throwing away our spare provisions, water bottles, and things like that. The sun was very low when we went over Lake Erie and the gas was cooling somewhat rapidly. We got down nearly to the lake and had come down to a lower strata when quite suddenly we changed to the northeast, and struck for the Ontario shore, reaching it about half the length of Lake Erie. There we came down rather low, but kept up to probably 1,000 metres. There T threw out some ballast. I was trying to gain an equilibrium —our course bore to the East—before reaching Lake Ontario, because one never knows how much ballast it will take to establish that equilibrium at night as compared with day. At one time a change from night to day may take 10 to 15 sacks of ballast, and at another time hut 5 or 6. When once you get that equilibrium, usually two or three saeks will take you a long way; but in the change from night to day the cooling of the gas is very uncertain, and it is indefinite as to how much will be needed. 1 got down a little too low trying to get this and the guide rope stuck in a wire fence, bringing the balloon down some distance, so that, while it tore loose from the wire fence—tearing out one strand of the guide rope—it put so much of it on the ground, that the friction of the rope from holding in that, strong wind, dragged the balloon down. We had to throw out a large amount of ballast to get the thing loose. We struck up very rapidly. We got near Lake Ontario, and I knew when it came down from any height it would take a good deal of ballast to stop us. We only had eight sacks left and T did not think it wise to attempt going the length of Lake Ontario at that time of the night. 1 still believe I did what was right.
Of course, when 1 found out that at the rate 1 was going, by one o'clock I could have beaten the distance made by the Pommern. I felt as though 1 should have liked to have kept on longer; but my basket was not prepared with any safety arrangement at all. Several of the balloons had their baskets lined with cork, inside and out; the German balloon especially. If it fell in the water it would keep floating a good many hours but I had nothing of that kind. My companion agreed with me fully and thought it would be unwise to go out on the Lake in that condition ; so we pulled the valve cord, let out some ballast and came down. It became dark, and we made a very good landing,—a mere matter of luck, because we could not tell where it was. We struck in a ploughed field, that had been ploughed some days beforeand was entirely drv. We cut loose the anchors and came down. 1 hardly fell the jar as the basket'struck the ground, and I pulled the ripping cord. The anchor hook caught into the soil and held and the balloon was dtdiated almost instantly. We made a very nice landing.
The balloon landed with the end within six or eight feet of the fence, along which a road passed. A moment or two later a farmer came along in a wagon, and we enquired if we could get some one to help us. He said he had to go eight or ten miles further hut he would take us along to the next neighbor, who, he felt sure, would help us through. He drove us about a quarter of a mile over to this farm. We reached there just before supper and th<? man invited us to take supper with him, which invitation we were very glad to accept.
We had had a rather busy time and had not eaten regularly in the balloon. He gave us a nice supper of farm things; plenty of good milk, hot biscuits, etc., then the whole family turned out to help pack the balloon. The farmer hitched up his horse and buggy and took us into the nearest village, about seven miles from there, so that we could telegraph our landing; and the next morning we brought in the balloon. We shipped it back to Air. Stevens. Mr. Atherholt took a train for Philadelphia and ] took one for Milwaukee, arriving home that night.
I am very sorry T did not do better than 1 did ; but in view of it all, I do not feel that I made any mistake.
I kept low during that night to try to get as far north as possible, because I felt sure the next day's tendency would be to go to the southeast, and 1 wanted to get to Maine or some place in the East. If ] had continued our course across Lake Erie and over Xew York State, we would have stood a very good show of being well up in the front. But as it was, Ave took the luck we had, and certainly we congratulate the winners on their success, and all of those engaging in the trip, on a most excellent and memorable flight. I cannot say positively, because I never read thoroughly of all the races, but 1 doubt very much if there has ever been a balloon race held in the world in which as many balloons nmde as many miles as they did in this race. That is, in Avhich nine balloons made as many miles as the nine balloons in this race did. It may be that it has been done before, but I don't think so. AVe have had one of the most successful races ever held.
The Story of the Abercron, by Paul Meckel.
I can only say that I think the other German aeronauts are glad to be here and we all Avish to thank all of you for the very nice arrangements avc had; especially for the very nice reception avc had in St. Louis on the part of the aeronautic club, and from the members of the German Club, and the other gentlemen there. I am very glad that avc will have the occasion next year of receiving you in Berlin for the third competition and Ave will do our best to make very fine Aveather for you, and Ave hope a good many of your members Avill come over and see it.
Of the arrangements at St. Louis, 1 can only tell what I know of my own experience. It Avas not the first time I had taken part in an international contest, and I must say that the others and myself were very ,m,uch pleased with the arrangements. The gas Avas excellent and the Avhole arrangement very good. What Ave did not like very much, for instance, Avas that the gas was stopped at noon, and did not come on again until 1 o'clock, so that Ave could go on again with the filling, but, of course, it was your first time and there Avere so many balloons in St. Louis. Mr. Erbsloh told me that yon had not had experience in 'filling so many balloons. I must say that the gas Avas excellent. I never saAV such a thing before, being only lighting gas. We Avere very much astonished at that, to find that we came into the second night Avith such gtrcat facility, and avc bad no trouble at all to keep the balloon at a steady height; even the first night, but especially the second night. We Avent from a height of about 10.000 feet down to the next height, of about 800 feet, Avithout dropping any ballast, and the balloon got its equilibrium that time and Avent up higher later on. about 1,600 feet, and kept there, witliotit dropping any ballast, or the opening of the valve. It kept at the same height during the whole night, and I regretted very much to be obliged to land the next morning, because
Ave saw water ami 1 thought it was the ocean. I must say that ii is not very complimentary to yon, but your maps are not very good. We had the topographical map. and the postal map, and the railway maps, and everything Ave could get.
We had very good speed on the second morning, just before landing—about 50 or GO kilometres an hour, so that it Avas impossible for me to make any inquiry from the people: especially because I had my guide rope down. It made a very great noise and we could not understand any answer from the people; otherwise 1 could have found the situation, just as 1 did the first day. When you know where yon are, then, of course, in a State like Ohio, or the surroundings of St. Louis, it is very easy to know your situation, because you can then see your railways: Avhen vou have lost that thing, it is very difficult to find the situation then, because on these maps there are only the towns and the railways, and nothing else. The streams that we encountered were not there. It was very difficult for me on the second day and so 1 thought it was necessary for me to land, because 1 saw the Avhole surface of water, and the small sailing craft on it. Then, of course, 1 did not knoAv it was the Potomac Fiver, Avhich it really was, and thought it was the Ocean. I had a very good excuse to land and did not go on.
My balloon was the smallest of its kind in the race. It held only 1,43? cubic metres and all the others had 2,200. almost twice as much, and 1 started with 14 sacks of ballast. All the others bad more, one starting with 41. I could have gone on at least 100 miles further. After landing, 1 had sacks, and Avhile landing I used two sacks, just to come doAvn more slowly. 1 could have spared it and not used one sack. The shock would have been only a little bit harder. Yon Abereron, could have gone on 500 miles.
It was very interesting, the first night going over the Alleghenies. We sometimes went from 200 to 300 feet above the summits of the mountains. We crossed very pretty valleys and could see these hundreds and hundreds of coke ovens. It Avas extremely interesting to see this wild scenery, especially after the first day. The first day it was not so interesting, because your cities are quite square and I did not use the compass at all, and 1 saw the land just going from east to west. We did not feel on the second night so much cold as on the first night, although Ave were higher. The second night we Ave re 1.G00 metres and the first night about 800 metres.
The Avhole arrangement was excellent. 1 can congratulate you upon the whole affair.
The Winning of the Lahm Cup, by Capt. Chas. De F. Chandler.
Mr. McCoy and 1 were without experience as compared with our foreign competitors and avc thought Ave would like to have a preliminary trip. 1 thought the best thing to do would be to enter for the Lahm Cup, even if we didn't get it. We didn't say anything about it beforehand, except to certain individuals. We arrived at the gas works late in the afternoon and finally got away with a good breeze— eighteen or twenty miles an hour—and Avent up to the northern part of Ohio, turning to the southeast, and then down into West Yirginia. 'The lirst night was unusually warm; I don't expect to experience Another night like that in a balloon. We did not even put on our overcoats.
That night we stayed pretty low. We talked to the farmers all along the way, and found our course from these towns and from various cities which we recognized. About one o'clock in the morning, we did not know just where we were and called out in the megaphone, getting an answer from some farmer. We asked Avherc we Avere. Lie said "Hendricks County, Indiana.'' Wc avctc just a mile north of Indianapolis and saAv the lights of the city. Keeping that same altitude, the wind shifted to the southeast. I don't know why it should do that at that altitude.
One peculiar thing about the sounds that night was that the chickens, ducks, etc., made a great noise, when the balloon was going over. They seemed to discover it. and 1 think that was why the farmers got out—they thought somebody was in
their chicken coops. They did not always discover the balloon, and when they did, the first question they asked was, "where are yen going?"" but we did not know, ourselves.
Occasionally shots were tired at the balloon—we must have had twenty or thirty lired at the balloon. A great many farmers did not seem to understand what the balloon was. One man in West Virginia expressed himself in very forcible lan-
the start for the lahm cop.
guage in inquiring what that was up in the air. This was in tlie day time, too.
After we crossed the Ohio ttiver—it was a pleasant day—we were headed just about for Charleston. West Virginia, and we thought that would be a good place to land and get a train back to St. Louis. Many of our friends, when we started, were very solicitous and thought we would not return in time for the international race. We expected to come down near Charleston, but about twenty miles from there the wind changed and took us up towards the northeast. We went further into the West A'irginia mountains. We knew we would be a long time in getting oat and decided to get down as soon as possible. We found by the map that we bad exceeded the 402 miles made by Lieutenant Lahm, and had made 4To miles up to that point. When we landed we had about one-third of our ballast left.
As it was, we got in a very bad place in the mountains. It took us 24 hours to get to the telegraph office. The roads were very bad. Part of them were down in the bed of the stream and the driver who undertook to haul the balloon, stated it would take us two days to get to a railroad station. We could not travel at night at all. Finally we got back to St. Louis, arriving there Sunday morning, a day before the race.
THE AIRSHIP OF THE NAVY.
The Heavier Than Air Machine.
By Admiral C. M. Chester.
In all the discussion that has gone on during the past year, which has been an eventful one in the histoiy of aeronautics, there is no small amount of material for thought, regarding its application to military seiviee. While the Xavy
generally, comes under this classification, it has such a distinctive field in military science, that the usual treatment of the theme does not meet these distinctions.
Writers who are competent to discuss such matters from a naval standpoint, are limited in number. None but seamen who have become familial- with a seafaring life, and understand the varying moods of the ocean and its enveloping atmosphere, can treat the subject understanding!v. As a rule, such of our officers who might take up the study of aerial navigation, are at present so actively employed far away from points on terra-firm a where experimentation with airships is usually made, that the opportunity has not yet arisen that should definitely bring this subject before the Xavy. Some experiments with airships which took place at the dames-town Exposition during the past summer, gave a few officers, who were stationed there, a chance to note some of the possibilities of aerial navigation for naval purposes, and if is understood they were deeply interested.
They were at least agreed, that the Xavy could not too soon add the art of aerial navigation to its list of requirements, if it is to maintain its standing as a leader in naval science.
A number of foreign navies have gone into the subject of aeronautics quite elaborately, but as little of their work has been allowed to be made public, we are not permitted to know what may be expected from their investigations.
Quite recently, however, brief articles accompanied by pictures have been published, indicating that captive balloons have actually become a part of war equipments of the Austrian Xavy. Furthermore, some of the secret history of the Russian-Japanese War., which has gradually come to light, shows that not in the Army only but in the Xavy as well, captive balloons have been used to good advantage as scouts.
For instance, it is learned that one of the Russian cruisers of the Vladivostock Squadron, which committed so much havoc among the Japanese transports and merchantmen during the late war between those nations, had installed on its decks a captive balloon, with which, fully inflated, the ship made more than one examination of the coast of the island of Nippon without being seen.
While the information thus brought to light is meager, sufficient is learned from the reports of actual practice to substantiate what theory has* heretofore pointed out as fact, that the airship is likely to become the long sought for antidote against attacks from submarine vessels. The elevation which the airship attains enables an observer to take, gives him a means of discovering the movements of the submarine vessels under water, and float ins: mines and stationary mines submerged much beyond the draft of a ship, may be detected.
The seaman, from time immemorial, has used the mast head of his vessel as a lookout station from which to pilot her through the intricate coral channels of the tropics, the light color of the coral formation making it easily discernible, even from this slight elevation, but the greater elevation possible from a balloon enables-an observer to see the characteristics of the bottom in not too dee]) water even though its color may nearly accord with that of the water.
Such knowledge as this, will at times be worth a fortune to a naval commander, and it must be agreed that if he is to reap much benefit from the subject, the naval man should take his share of the work and the expense of developing the art of mechanical flight as a military measure. Many officers of the Xavy would like to study aerial navigation, and 1 may say there is no class of people in the country better qualified, by education, mechanical ability, and experience allied to the subject than are the officers graduated from the Naval Academy. It is to be hoped that the authorities may see that the matte]- is of such importance as to warrant the establishment of an Aeronautic Corps, as has been done in all the principal armies of the world, as well as in the JJussian. Austrian and. as I believe, other navies of Europe.
The event which has brought to our shores this yea]- a Congress of eminent
men, was the winning by us of the aeronautic trophy, for which the representatives of the leading nations of the world competed, and which they came here to recapture.
The race was won on scientific principles that are perfectly familiar to seamen,, and their application at the time of the last international race in Europe last year might well be termed a "seamen's trick," such as occurs in nearer every ocean race,—viz., the taking advantage of the laws of storms. Any day that presages a coming storm, here, you may see hundreds of vessels at anchor on the beautiful waters of Hampton Poads, waiting "till the clouds roll by", and the storm has; passed over until its southwest quadrant overlies our Atlantic coast. Taking advantage of the cyclonic character of the storm, with the wind in their favor, they spread their sails and proceed to the ocean, with the assurance of a safe and quick trip to their destinations in the south. This is like unto what Lahm and Hersey did in the balloon race of last year, when they put their ship in the quadrant of southerly winds low down in the atmospheric sea, rather than seek the higher altitudes their competitors took. By so doing they were carried north from Paris to England, and reached the ''farthest north''- of that little island, and thus won the cup against seventeen competitors. This was old time navigation, but it was done with an old time airship, as the balloon is and, as the result showed, fitted the conditions of the occasion.
The aeroplane on the other hand, cannot be left to the will of the wind, but must plough through the air overcoming the forces of the wind in the direction of the goal, rather than do, as has been done in the past, both in ocean and aerial navigation, set the sails and let nature do the rest.
Xo one factor in the problem of mechanical flight has been so important to the solution of that problem, as the introduction of the explosive engine, which is now also becoming one of the prime factors in designing the war ship of the future.
While the aeroplane must be heavier than air, it is evident that its weight should not be so great as to destroy its buoyancy, under the conditions of motion, which its motive power must give.
Formerly, the weight of the machinery of a vessel was much greater in proportion to the displacement than it is now, otherwise it would be impossible to secure the high speed of our trans-oceanic liners without sacrificing so much of their carrying capacity as to make them unprofitable to navigate. So in the flying machine, the evolution of the engine presages our success in mechanical flying.
In 1894 Sir Hiram Maxim flew an aeroplane weighing five tons, a distance of 400 yards. His engine was driven by steam generated from naphtha fuel, and had a weight equivalent to 10 pounds per horse power. Santos Dumont's aeroplane is motored by explosive engines weighing only 2 pounds per horse power, and it is claimed that airship machinery weighing but little over one pound per horse power is possible of construction.
Thus in the evolution of the hydro-carbon engine, has the weight of machinery been reduced to one-tenth of what it was a few years ago.
The dirigible balloon is now part of the equipment of nearly all the armies of the world, but, as already stated, it is not a machine profitable for general use on shipboard, and naval men should give their attention to the development of the aeroplane, which is peculiarly a naval weapon, and opens great possibilities for utility. Some features showing the adaptability of the aeroplane for service on board ship, I would itemize as follows: 1st. Its compactness.
2nd. Its location near to a machine shop.
3rd. Its adaptability for scouting purposes.
4th. Having the power at hand for initial movement.
In explanation of these points I would state:
1st. A few months ago it was my privilege to examine the laboratory of that
indefatigable worker and enthusiastic scientist, the Prince of Monaco, what might be styled a mechanical bird, which was not much larger than its natural prototype, the albatross.
The whole mechanism of this wonderful contrivance, so simple and yet so convincing that 1 said at once, "therein lies the secret of the naval 'Bird of Prey.'" 1 have not yet heard that it has flown, but one feature of the machine, which I recognized as having been introduced into our own naval architecture many years ago, with such marked success that I was led to hope the result might lead to a speedy solution of the problem. The compactness of the Monaco invention suits it particularly to naval conditions.
2nd. Probably no factory in the country is so well fitted to make small repairs to machinery, and has such a variety of mechanical skill to use it, as a battle ship. Such a machine shop, is, therefore, always at hand for the repairs and adjustments of the parts of a Xavy airship, without which no mechanism can he kept in order.
3rd. Lord Nelson, when chasing the vessels of his arch enemy, Napoleon, in the early part of the last century, said that what he missed most in the composition of his fleet was scout vessels, which he properly styled "the eyes of the fleet." It is only necessary to read of his campaigns in the light of this expression, to appreciate what an advantage a small, compact aeroplane, carried by each of his ships would have been to him. An observer, raised in an airship above the ocean, may not only extend his view over the water but the sea may be made to give up some of its secrets. This last factor in scouting is of more importance now that we have the submarine to deal with, than was the search for an enemy in Nelson's day.
In actual war, then, the naval "Bird of Prey" may be launched into the air from a battle ship and give timely warning of an approaching enemy. Just as the balloon acts for the army on shore, and swooping down destroys them very much as does the albatross upon her living prey in the sea.
4th. The greatest difficulty to be overcome in the problem of mechanical flight, is providing suitable means to give the airship initial motion. Langley, for instance, built an airship, which all now recognize to have been upon right principles, and his model did, in fact, fly, but his plans came to naught as far as the machine itself was concerned owing to defects in his launching ways. Mechanical flight is only possible when a momentum through the air is acquired of about seventeen and one-half miles per hour. As the machine must .start from rest, some means to produce movement, outside of itself, must be had before its own motor can act with sufficient power to attain this speed. It is commonly done down an inclined plane. This may readily be constructed on board ship, but generally the ship's own headway through the air may be sufficient, and herself become the launching platform. If her engine will not drive the vessel that fast, it will only be necessary to steam her head in to the wind, when a relative speed through the air will be gained equal to her own advance, plus the rate of the wind in the opposite direction. Thus, by a simple movement of the helm, the ship may become the launching platform for the aeroplane.
One thing is certain, any design for an airship will be of little value until it has become so mechanically adjusted as to be able to overcome all conditions of the atmosphere that militate against its flight, and as these conditions are chronic, perpetual treatment is necessary. The doctors are always at hand on board a man-of-war, with suitable remedies to mend the breaks.
Instances might be multiplied, to show the possibilities of the aeroplane in connection with naval conditions, but it seems needless at this time to say more, in order to indicate of a serious study of aeronautics as applied to the Navy, and to the development of a machine that promises so much as a war implement.
Mav we not also hope that the men who have done so much for the development of the flying machine, and who arc still earnestly and patiently working for its practical perfection, may. in the spirit of patriotism, be led to give to our Xavy,
24 AMERICAN M AG A Z IX E OF AERONAUTICS
the benefit of their experience, and with its officers, help to bring to the service of their country the result of their labor, which shall become a new and wonderful ally to the battle ship, in the future conflicts of the sea. Until the dawn of that more glorious day, which we all hope to see, when, through the efforts of our International Congress of Peace, "the bird of prey"' may be transformed into the dove that bears "the olive branch."
SPECIAL PREMIUM OFFER
1 year's subscription to this magazine,
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Everyone making balloon ascents is requested to send in to this office as full a report of their trip as possible.
Xov. 5. Messrs. A. Leo Stevens and Charles J. Glidden (A. C. A.) in the "Stevens 21" from Pittsfield, Mass., 10:46 a.m., landing at Xorth Springfield, Yt., at 2:12 p.m. Highest altitude reached, 8,200 feet. Elapsed time, 3 hours, 26 minutes. Distance. 71 miles. This makes two ascents for Mr. Glidden.
. Xov. 9. Messrs. A. Leo Stevens (A. C. A.) and F. 1L White in the "Stevens 21" from Xorth Adams, Mass., 12:10 p.m., landing at Xew London, X. H., at 5:05 p.m. Highest altitude reached, 7,000 feet. Elapsed time, 4 hours, 55 minutes. Distance, 74% miles. Cold. Passed over snow-clad mountains.
Xov. 9. Messrs. Oscar Erbsloh (D. L.-Y.), Dr. J. P. Thomas (A. C. A.), Mrs. Thomas, Capt. T. T. Lovelace (A. C. A.), \A. Pobert Henderson, U. S. X., and Dr. Eudolph Erbsloh in the "Pommern" from Philadelphia, Pa., landing at 175th Street, Xew York. Distance, 97 miles. Xew York was announced before starting as the objective point.
Xov. 14. Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton (Ben Franklin A. S.) and Major William S. Lloyd in the "Initial'' from Philadelphia, Pa., at 2:05 p.m., landing at Port Eepublic, X. J., 3:42 p.m. Elapsed time, 1 hour, 37 minutes. Highest altitude 8,400 feet, Temperature at start 46° F., at highest altitude, 23.4° F.' Distance, 56 miles. Start made in high wind, which continued. It was necessary to use the rip-cord in landing as the anchor would not hold in the sand.
Xov. 15. Messrs A. Leo Stevens (A. C. A.) and dames F. Lord in the "Stevens 21" from Xorth Adams, Mass., at 11:01 a.m., landing at Fremont, X. TL, 4:15 p.m. Highest altitude 1,500 feet. Passed through snow storm. Elapsed time, 5 hours, 14 minutes. Distance, 103 miles.
Xov. 17. H|on. C, S. Polls, Lieut. Frank P. Lalim (A. C. A.), Lord Eoyston and Mr. Bernard Redmond from Chelsea, England, it was planned''to land as close as possible to the country house of Mr. Claude Crompton. The wind was favorable and the landing was made within a few hundred yards of the house half an hour before they were expected.
Xov. 19. Messrs. A. Leo Stevens and A. Holland Forbes (A. C. A.) in the-"Stevens 21v from Pittsfield, Mass., at 12:35 p.m., landing at Milford. Ct.. at -1 :!զgt; p.m. Highest altitude reached, 11.480 feet. Elapsed time, 3 hours. 40 minutes. Distance, 83% miles. Landing made in high wind and balloon dragged considerable distance. At the high altitude the heat was excessive.
Xov. 21. Messrs. Charles Walsh and John 1). Larkin, Jr., (A. C. A.) in the "Initial" from Philadelphia at 2:45 p.m.. landing at Milford, X. 3., at 4:42 p.m. Highest altitude. 2.20(1 feet. Temperature 70° 'at 1.600 feet, 40° at 1.700 feet. All the trip in and above clouds except during occasional descents to get location. Elapsed time, 1 hour. 57 minutes. Distance, 4:7Vt miles. This trip completes, for Mr. Walsh, the ten necessary to qualify as a pilot.
Xov. 25 Messrs. A. Leo Stevens, J. D. Larkin. Jr.. L. M. Taylor. A. IL. Morgan, J. H. Wade. A. Holland Forbes (A. (\ A.) and F. H. White in the All America from Pittsfield, Mass., at 10:55 a.m.. landing at Canterbury, X. IL. at 4 :3<r p.m. Distance. 103% miles. Elapsed time, 5 hours. 35 minutes. Highest altitude. 12,970 feet.
Xov. 29. Mr. Frederick IL White in the "Stevens 20" from. North Adams, at 11:03 a.m., landing at Fitchburg, Mass.. at 3:15 p.m. Elapsed time. 4 hours. 12' minutes. Distance, 73% miles.
CHRONOLOGY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.
November. 5. After numerous attempts M. de la Grange left the ground for about 150 feet, after a run of GOO. He made a false movement with the steering-apparatus and not having time to correct it the machine was dashed to the ground and wrecked, with the exception of the motor. Farman was at the other end of the field, ready for a flight, when the accident occured. He started flight at once and arrived on the scence earlier than most of the automobiles.
Xov. 6. The Bleriot Xo. 7, while running on the ground, skidded, crumpling" the frame and damaging the left wing. Propeller struck the ground at high speed and crushed it. Bleriot kept his seat and was unhurt.
Xov. 1-3. Dr. Kurt Wegener, in the balloon "Ziegler.*" of 143* cubic meters, made a trip from Kheinfelden. Germany, across the English Channel to London in 401/2 hours. The balloon was held in readiness and lei go during the night as soon as the proper wind came. Dr. Wegener holds the world's record (52*0 hours) tor duration and in this last trip came close to beating the next best record, hi the record trip, April 5-7, 1906, he traveled from Berlin north to the upper end of Denmark, and return to Asehaffenbur°\ to the southwest of Berlin, a distance of. follow ing the course of the balloon up and back, 780 miles.
Xov. 7. Farman twice beat his former record of 771 meters, the longest measured flight being 800 meters (2624 feet), though the second flight which was not measured, was 100 meters (328 feet) longer. lie was in the air in this flight 1 min. 10 sees, and was able to steer his machine sufficiently to describe an "S" and" landed easily.
According to press dispatches a bill will be laid before the Pcichstag upon its assembling, appropriating money for Zeppelin to build the new airship. It is also-said the imperial authorities are considering the question of repaying him all the-money he has spent in experimenting with airships.
Xov. 8. La Pa trie made a circular trip over Paris lasting 4 hours. Distance covered estimated at 140 km. (84 miles).
Xov. 9. After a number of preliminary flights. Farman flew 1 m. 1 I sees, at about 10 feet from the ground, over an estimated distance of 1 <)->(> meters, during" which he succeeded in making a complete circle, returning to within about U> meters of the start. Subsequently he made some "exhibition" flights, executing various"-
the farman aeroplane.
curves. Judging from these flights, lie will soon win the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize of 50,000 francs, offered to him who shall accomplish first 1 kilometer flight and returning to the start after rounding a post 500 meters away. "At first the machine rolled slowly along the ground, but quickly gathering speed it shot off into the atmosphere at a gentle angle. Once in the air it became evident that Mr. Farman had his apparatus thoroughly in band. As he gradually inclined the rudder the head responded to the touch. Around came the plane, inclining slightly toward the ground. As the curve became more and more pronounced there was no swaying and the stability of the apparatus did not appear to be affected in the slightest degree by the circular movement.
Keeping the rudder over at a moderate angle, Mr. Farman succeeded in bringing the head of the plane right around until it was bearing toward the starting point. Then he straightened the rudder and started for home at full speed amid the deafening cheers of the onlookers. The flight lasted one minute and fourteen seconds.
When Mr. Farman descended from the machine he was almost overwhelmed by congratulators, among whom none was more enthusiastic than M. Archdeacon, who left the manoeuvring ground convinced that within a week he will be $5,000 out of pocket.
Before dark Mr. Farman accomplished several other flights. The last flight, in the form of a huge "S" down the field, enabled him to demonstrate with what facility he can bring his apparatus to a horizontal position by judicious use of the rudder when for any cause whatsoever the horizontal position has been lost."
Xov. 11. Farman out again and in a heavier wind than usual. He left the ground for a short distance in the first trial. The motor did not respond and the second was no better.
Santos Burnout completed "No. 19.'v The trials in which it was towed by an automobile proved promising. The engine is now to be installed.
Nov. 14. M. Pischoff practiced with his new machine. The motor worked poorly and only limited speed was attained. In making a sudden turn the apparatus fell over on one wing and dashed into a fence, damaging the propeller and the front portion of the machine.
Farman flew at first start, describing a large semi-circle. Descended to adjust motor. Then made two or three more flights. Suddenly when describing a large circle one of the propeller blades snapped off, striking the ground. It was turning at 1500 r. p. m. but fortunately the propeller broke when the force was directed downward.
The Yille de Paris, after being deflated for G weeks or so to allow of various
alterations and the fitting of a now Yoisin propeller, sailed over Paris. Traveled against a wind of 7 meters (22.96 feet) per second. The new screw has a pitch of 6 meters 30 centimeters and turns at a maximum speed of 180 r. p. m. In this flight at 140 r. p. m. it developed a speed of 42 kilometers (25.2 miles) an hour. The maximum altitude was about 1000 feet.
La Patrie also out and made a successful ascent.
Nov. 1G. La Patrie maneouvred near Versailles. Photographs were made of the military manoeuvres below. Navigated at a height of 1,300 meters (4,264 feet) and it was claimed to be out of range of any projectiles which could be aimed by an enemy.
Nov. 17. Santos Dumont made unsuccessful attempt for Deutsch-Archdeaeon prize. At first trial did not leave the ground. In succeeding flight he covered about 200 meters (656 feet). Luring the flights the wheels were damaged' but were repaired on the ground. The machine seems to be stable but Dumont lacks skill. The motor worked imperfectly.
Nov. IS. Farman accomplished a kilometer in competition for the Deutsch-Archdeaeon prize. The machine touched the ground for an instant twice during the flight; once just before making the turn at the 500-meter post and once just after rounding the post. The return was made to the starting point but by reason of the machine's touching the ground the prize was lost. Orville Wright was present and expressed surprise that the prize had not been won before.
The Yille de Paris, with five passengers, traveled from Sartrouville to Jssy-le-Moulineaux where the aeroplane flights are made. After watching Farman's flights, the airship changed passengers, taking on M. Georges Besancon, Secretary of the Aero Club of France, M. Jacques Fan re, If. Pobert de Pothschild, in addition to the pilot Kapferer and the mechanic Panlhan, and traveled to Montesson at a constant altitude of about 380 meters. The trip from Issy to Montesson consumed 3 hours and 37 minutes.
Nov. 10. Count de la Vaulx tried out his new aeroplane but was thrown from the machine during flight, due to the breaking of a wing.
falling under it, gasoline taking fire.
Nov. 21. L The Yille de Paris made another trip.
Santos Dumont made several flights, the longest being from 30 to 40 meters. Just on landing one of the propeller blades snapped off and the machine fell on its side and was somewhat damaged. The motor partially broke loose when the blade flew off. The propeller blade traveled a distance of 120 meters, almost burying itself in the ground. Farman states that he believes the propeller could cut its way through 10 people. The Santos Dumont machine will not be out again for some time.
Nov. 23. Farman competed for the third time for the Deutsch-Archdeaeon prize. He made but one flight of 120-150 meters. A violent wind and rainstorm came up and lasted all day. lie flew from the shed to the starting point, a distance of 900 meters (2052 feet) and then started on the course. The wind was blowing at 12-18 miles an hour and caught the machine sideways. To prevent being blown
plan of de la vaulx machine.
out of the field descent was made. "In the squalls which repeatedly struck the machine Mr. Farm an showed great presence of mind, and was able by judicious use of the rudder to keep the apparatus on a tolerably even keel. At times the angles assuredly appeared alarming, but by keeping the motor working, contrary to the practice of most aviators when in difficulties, Mr. Farman endeavored to make the huge plane obey him. His success was loudly praised by experts."
La Patrie sailed from Paris to Verdun, with four men aboard, 238 kilometers (1-12.8 miles) in 7 hours and 5 minutes, a mean average speed of 20.4 miles per hour. At the Eiffel Tower a wind blowing 11 meters a second was encountered. November 30th a sudden violent gust of wind tore the airship from the grasp of the soldiers at Verdun and was last reported as having come to earth in Ireland. There were conflicting reports as to whether anyone was on board the ship or not.
THE AERO SONG. Dedicated to the Aero Club of America. By A. Morrison.
Come ye who dare to plow the air. This glorious summer weather, Anil by balloon.
This afternoon. We'll sail the blue together.
In Cloudland! In Cloudland! Oh to rise! And Soar! As a bird, evermore.
Thro' skies of pearl and rose and gold. To mount the way,
That leads, they say. To Paradise!
Sure nothing quite yields such delight As to be free of tether; And land or sea.
What can there be. Like cruising thro' the ether? (Chorus.)
Where we can rise in grand emprise, All worldly empire ending; And, as we float.
In passing note, The vesper star ascending. (Chorus.)
So here's a song, for those who long, To voyage 'round the planet; That voyage thro'
Empyrean bine; And nothing now to ban it! (Chorus.)
Where sea mews wing and skylarks sing, And naught is that annoys us. A bark sans keel,
A ear sans wheel, Our aero-mobile will poise us! (Chorus.)
Then while we may, come love, away, Beyond Earth's grossness drifting; Where hearts are thrilled, And souls are filled. With a divine uplifting! (Chorus.)
The Springfield, U., Xews of Xovember 3 contains an interesting article on aeronautics comprising the ideas of Mr. John Bryan, of Riverside, Ohio. In one place Mr. Bryan states:
"Up near Yellow Springs, Ohio, where T sometimes reside on Riverside Farm, we have two little black jackasses. "We have a p.-ek-saddle resting upon a light frame support just quite touching but not resting upon Jack's back. We now load three two-bushel sacks of wheat upon the pack-saddle. The three sacks of wheat weight 360 pounds. AVe now strap the pack-saddle to tlu asses" back by broad, easy bands around his belly.
"We then attach the cords of a captive balloon or gas bag to the top of the pack-saddle or load. The balloon's lifting strength is 400 pounds; that is, it lifts the 360 pounds load and 40 pounds of the jackass. That jackass now steps off with the 360 pounds load and 40 pounds lighter than he could walk on his own legs without it. Xathan Clark, a 12-year-old boy, leads the ass away to the grain elevator at-the village: or by increasing the lifting power of the balloon by putting in a little more gas, Xathan can ride the ass and the ass not have any increase of load. The ass only guides the balloon and affords such slight propulsion as it needs."
Mr. H. IT. Clayton, who accompanied Erbsloh in the Gordon Bennett, addressed the meeting of the Boston Scientific Society on Xovember 12, the subject being "Scientific Aspects of Ballooning," illustrated with lantern slides of the race. Mr. Clayton concludes from his experience in the Pommern that unless interfered with by local mountains or currents induced by them, it would be possible to land a balloon at any prearranged point. The Pommern was diverted from this course by natural'obstacle."* in western Pennsylvania, and so came to Xew Jersey. With a better knowledge of the country and with a little experience he believes that the run could have been longer, since on landing thev had about one-third of the ballast remaining.
While aloft Alr. Clayton made a number of interesting meteorological observations. ]Ie found a dailv change of wind that he did not know of before. The practical etfect of this was that the track of the balloon was not a straight line. The change in the wind drove it in a zigzag. Compared with the other balloons the course of the Pommern was very straight, but there was in it this divergence which experience might perhaps eliminate.
The Pommern went 953 miles to make a line of 876 miles and arrived at its limit on the coast four and one-half hours ahead of its nearest competitor, the French balloon of Le Blanc. The other balloons were, however, nearly at the end of their resources, while the Pommern had ballast enough for another twentv four hours. The descent was made necessary because the balloon was at the edge of the ocean.
The Buckwalter Airship Co., of l.oudonville. <)., has been incorporated to build airships that will "carry passengers."
The Spanish Government has recently purchased a drachen-balloon for military use. During the week of October 2 it made a flight in the presence of King Alfonso.
On Top of the Stage Coach. "What a clear view! Xot a single airship in sight !"--Ji(;/ciij.
Mr. Frederick 11. White will deliver a lecture on ballooning, illustrated with slides and motion pictures, at the Y.MC.A. in Boston on December 19th. The affair is being held under the patronage of the Aero Club of Xew England.
Another Frenchman, Julien Arbin, of Meaux, has plans for a helicopter which he claims will travel as slow as 10 miles an hour. The framework is to be 32.S feet in length by 9.8 feet wide. Ten 10-foot horizontal propellers will he driven by a 100 hp. motor. The total weight, including two passengers, one at the motor and one at the rudder, is calculated to be about 2(>40 pounds. Tiie cost is estimated at $20,000.
The end of October saw the close of a series of experiments with a captive balloon, conducted by the Italian Government. The balloon was inflated from tin; deck of the ''Elba/' The aeronauts were able to see the movements of the "enemy" in the mimic attack and photographs of the cruiser "Francisco Fenuceio" and the city and peninsula of Augusta were taken.
Renault Freres have put on the market an aeronautic motor.
"The Car," of November 13, in giving the contestants in the 1 DOT Gordon Bennett leaves America with but two balloons. Mr. Pfawlev being omitted altogether.
The "Korea-Asia Daily" quotes Colonel Cody, who is said to have had a great deal to do with the building of the English "Nulli Secundus," as saying. "While the French, German and English armies are progressing in military airship building. America is lax. Airships are now placed on the Franco German frontier. One-spectacle of the next war will he battles in the air. The advantages of the airship are that from it an enemy can be observed, explosives can be dropped and besieged towns relieved. Airships are not dangerous, because gas is kept in separate compartments, and one or two bullets would not be effective against them. When 1 have-completed my British contract I shall return to America and urge upon the Government the advantage of having an airship to watch, for instance, the hostile natives in the Philippines."
During November, at the Mississippi State Fair at Jackson, the "California Arrow" made nine very successful and pretty ascents; six with Captain Baldwin aboard, two with Mr. Augustus Post, Secretary of the Aero Club of America and one with Mr. A. P. Shirley, of Nashville. On one trip Captain Baldwin sailed from the grounds to the State House, about a mile, landed and called on Governor Yarda-man and after circling thd Governor and the State House returned to the aerodrome. Five other exhibition flights were made, lasting fro mi 20 to 30 minutes each. Mr. Post's two half-hour trips were exceedingly well conducted. The weather was perfect and though Mr. Post had never before sailed an airship his operation of it was correct in every respect. During the one trip the airship was headed into the wind and "hovered"' over a foot-ball game that was in progress. Mr. Shirley also made his first airship flight and though his flight was not quite as long as the others he piloted the ship as ably as an expert.
Mr. Wilbur Wright has returned to America.
"The present aeronautical activity recalls the kite craze of fifty-live years ago,, when kite carriages were being extensively built and experimented with. With the aid of two kites a carriage was pulled twenty-live miles an hour."—CJiinu/o Journal.
From an account given in the Neue Freie Presse of the recent experiments of Mr. Wels at Trautenau with an aeroplane which he has invented, it would seem that on Oct. 8 he was successful with four flights, beginning with 104 yards and ending with 262 yards. The apparatus, which has no motor at present and is simply a
gliding plane, lias a supporting area of about 430 square feet. The flight is launched from the sloping side of a hill near the works.
Alfred Le Blanc, who was second in distance traveled in the St. Louis international balloon races, and first in the length of time in the air, received from the Aero Club of France a gold medal. He says of his American experience: "The organization at St. Louis was wonderful and the quality of gas excellent, while the pressure was such that all the balloons could have been inflated in two hours and a half, which, of course, could not be done in Paris/' St. Lotus is glad to know that its first attempt is so well appreciated by experts. It expects to accomplish bigger things in its aeronautic programme of next October.
The latest recruit of the corps of aeronautic experimenters in Paris is M. Kluvtmans, a Dutch engineer, who has invented a new type of steerable balloon. This is a cylindrical aerostat divided into two equal parts, between which a screw revolves, thus giving the motive power in the axis of the airship instead of from below, as in the case of the Patria.
Almost a full sized model of the machine, brought by M. Kluvtmans to Paris, has won commendation from eminent aeronauts.
It is reported that the Engineering Department of the Russian Ministry of War has appointed a special Commission to take charge of the construction of a dirigible. The envelope is to be made in Russia.
Announcement made that the well-known Siemens-Halske-Sehuekcrt Electric Co. has decided to make a business of building military ships and selling them. The company has begun the construction of an airship designed to outstrip in speed and power all those so far built. It has also been experimenting with gasless mac-bines.
The English Government started work on a successor to the Dirigible No. 1 which met with an accident after a trip to London, recorded last month. The new ship is to have an added weight carrying capacity of about 1400 pounds over that of the former and it is expected that the new 100 horsepower engine will drive it at a speed of 40 miles an horn- in calm air. The following table shows a comparison of the new airship and the Nulli Secundus as altered since its voyage over London:
Engines (horse-power) ............... 50 100
Gas-bag capacity (cubic'feet).......... 54.000 04,000
Gas-bag diameter (feet) .............. 30 42
Lifting power, including equipment and
passengers (pounds) ............... 3.400 4.S00
Speed per hour, in calm (miles)........ 17 40
Maximum number of passengers........ 3 G
Announcement is made that M. Oharron, M. de Contadc and M. Mallet have formed a company for the purpose of building dirigibles. It is said that three were ordered b}r private people and one for the use of visitors to Paris who wish to make trips. The cost of passage on a trip is estimated to be from 500 to 1000 francs ($100-200) for each passenger.
The following "ad" recently appeared in three Chicago newspapers: "WANTED—Brave chambermaid, cook, deck hands and night watchman to sail on an airship; good wages; none but persons with stead}' nerves need apply."
In returning to America on November 21, Wellman said: "I am not dis-
couraged. I expect to make another ett'ort either next year or the year after and if J can only find favorable weather I can reach the pole. My*****test of the 'America' was a success."
"At the unveiling of Rodin's bust of Henley in Westminster Abbey/" said a Xew York editor, "a number of good stories were told about the poet. H. G. Wells praised Henley's conduct of the New Review. Of course, this periodical failed, yet it was undoubtedly the besf'^edited magazine of the last century. In it Henley introduced to the world new writers of such distinction as Joseph Conrad, Kenneth Grahame, W. B. Yeats, Mr. Wells himself, and so on. One day as Mr. Wells and Henley stood in the office of the magazine, discussing rather sadly its gloomy prospects, a funeral went by with slow pace. Henley leaned out of the window and looked at the funeral anxiously. Then he turned to his companion and said with a worried frown: 'Can that be our subscriber?' —Washington Star.
This does not refer to the American Magazine of Aeronautics.
In the Kreisblatf, a newspaper published at Iloechst. near Wiesbaden, Germany, there recently appeared the following advertisement: "-'Can anyone favor me with the names of the balloonists who, when passing over the village of Ried last Thursday evening, dropped a bag of ballast down inV chimney and completely ruined a fruit tart which 1 was above?—lulia Schmidt, 14 Britzelgrasse, Ried.''
If the correspondents of the local newspapers studied up a little on the subject of aeronautics they would not be so ready to print the "hot-air" so plentifully fed to them and we would also be spared the fantastic statements and stories that have been alreadv in months.
Si. Louis and Aerial Navigation. The St. Louis Aero Club has decided to make balloon racing an annual event in that city. Plans are perfectly, it is said, "for a week of aeronautics" in St. Louis in October. 3908, and so generous will be the prizes that balloonists from all parts of the world are expected to participate in the contests.
Chicago is not as yet a balloon center, and does not pretend to be, although it has more wind to spare for ballooning purposes than any other city in the country; therefore, it hesitates somewhat to offer St. Louis any advice on aeronautics.
The time is almost certain to come when we shall take the lead in ballooning as in everything else, but before that time comes balloons will have to be so constructed that they will revel, so to speak, in our prairie zephyrs and lake-breezes, and be able to navigate them with ease and suffer no sort of trouble while being carried in three or more different directions by our fresh air currents.
But we are not giving local ballooning much thought as yet. We are too busy now striving to navigate the surface of the earth. As soon as our traction systems are thoroughly reorganized and our traction lines completely rehabilitated, so that we shall not have to give so much attention to balancing ourselves from straps, we may take up aeronautics and give our hearts to the sport. If we ever do, St. Louis may as well learn now as any time, we shall put into ballooning the same energy, the same enterprise, the same spirit that we put into everything else when we settle down to serious work.
However, perhaps for the very reasons we have stated, we are in a better position to give St. Louis advice than if we were a balloon center ourselves, or were thinking of becoming one in the near future.
We can at least be disinterested. We can at least advise St. Louis as an outsider. And we should be privileged, under the circumstances, to offer our counsel to our sister city for what it is worth.
Our idea, then, is that St. Louis is going about this annual balloon race in the
wrong way. We noticed the other day that just as soon as a balloon was sent up in St. Louis it proceeded to get as far away as possible from that city. Every balloon that was sent up took a course of its own. the aim of each and all of them being, apparently, to get away regardless entirely of the direction in which it traveled. St. Louis could see the balloons for only a few minutes, because they traveled with greater speed when leaving that city than they did at any other time.
Xow, there is nothing novel in the fact that balloons hurry away from St. Louis when they see nothing ahead to prevent them from escaping. So it occurs to us that what St. Louis should do is to plan an aeronautic contest which would be practically the leverse of the one now in mind. That is. the balloons should start from different points throughout the country with the St. Louis as their destination. St. Louis could then safely offer even more generous prizes than she proposes to offer now to the balloons that would land there.
It may require a quarter or a half century of annual contests before a single balloon lands in St. Louis, but when one does land there then St. Louis may well claim that she has solved the aerial navigation problem, and can well afford to pay over the prize, provided it shall not be discovered that the balloon in question landed there entirely by accident.—Chicayo Jiiter-Orean.
One on the Sexton.
Alexander Graham Bell, whose experiments promise to give him as wonderful a success with the flying machine as he had with the telephone, at a dinner in Washington told this story:
"'Many years ago an aged friend of mine visited a church in Maine one Sunday morning. As soon as the sermon began, my friend, avIio was very deaf, took from his pocket an ear trumpet in two parts and proceeded to screw the parts together.
"While he was engaged in this work he noticed that the sexton, from his seat near the pulpit, kept frowning and shaking his head at him.
"Finally, just as my friend got his trumpet joined and made as if to put it to his ear. the sexton hastened to him and whispered tiercel\ :
"' vYe can't play that here. If ye do I'll put ye out." "—Los Angeles Outlook.
Mr. Israel Ludlow is inaugurating an aeronautic lecture tour, beginning after the close of the Jamestown Exposition. The talks will be illustrated by moving pictures of the 190G and 1007 Gordon Bennett, the Santos Dumont aeroplane, the Ludlow kite, and various others relating to the art.
Colonel Gadke. retired, of the German army, has published bis views on the dirigible in war. He comments on the great success attained thus far in the building of dirigibles but points out that, so far as he is aware, the greatest wind that has been faced by La Patrie was about fourteen meters a second, and that the ascents made have been under favorable circumstances, such as would not be met in time of war. He goes on to say that the dirigible can only be considered from the standpoint of use as a means of reconnoissance and transmitting orders or communicating between a besieged fortress and the interior of the country, the armies in the field and the Government. Colonel Gadke also considers the meeting in the air of hostile airships and their attempts to destroy each other.
In view of the opinion of some that an elimination race for the purpose of selecting a team is unfair and impracticable, it may be of interest to know that the Xiederrbeinischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt, on August loth, held a contest whose object was to find out which balloon should he one of the three to represent Germany l'n the Gordon Bennett race for 1007. The three balloons which look part were as follows: "Elberfeld," pilot Milarch; companions. Spindler and Vogt— "Abercron,'" pilot, Xiemyer; companions, Althoff and Diepenbroek—"Düsseldorf." pilot, von
Abercron; companions. Weiss and Stach. The Düsseldorf made 384 miles, the Elberfeld 300 miles and the Abercron 312 miles. The Wiener Luftschiffer Zeitung remarks "it would appear that the Düsseldorf was superior to the other balloons."
A new aeroplane is nearing completion at Sartrouville under the direction of Kapferer and Paulhan. who assisted in building the Aille de Paris. This machine is said to approximate the Langley type.
AI. La Las is reported to have made a kilometre against stream and a kilometre with the stream in 1 min. oG1/^ sees., allowing for time taken in turning. This is a mean speed of 38.5 miles per hour. The time, however, was not taken officially.
In spite of the good work Farman is doing abroad, it is the general opinion in America among those who ought to know that he has about reached the limit of possibility with his present machine. The main difficulty seems to be transverse stability, though we have not yet heard of him making his turns and evolutions in a strong wind.
Ah- Edgar S. Smith, a student at a college in California, has been experimenting with a gliding machine for some time. On November 2, through the carelessness of the boys who were assisting in the launching, the aeroplane suddenly dipped and struck the ground from a height of GO feet. The machine was a wreck but the operator escaped uninjured. Work was started on a new one at once.
When aerial navigation gets into the racing! class generally, how would you like to be an airship jockey?
Society balloonists who endanger the public by dropping ballast on the heads of pedestrians have been dubbed in England "air hogs." The English language keeps on growing all the time.
Air. Charles 1\. Hamilton will fly one of Air. A. Eoy Knabenshue's airships next summer.
The "California Arrow" has made nine successful flights during 4907 with Captain T. S. Baldwin as pilot.
On November 27 Ah', ft. II. Curtiss, of Hammondsport, N. Y., made the first flight in a new twin-screw dirigible, the invention of Captain Thomas S. Baldwin.
On November 13 Dr. Alexander Graham Bell finished his latest kite "The Signet."
"The famous flying machine built by the Brothers Wright is still attracting attention, and 1 now learn from a sure source that the negotiations with the German Government have been brought to a satisfactory close. The latter have agreed to pay a large sum for the American inventors' secret, and all now depends upon a series of trials to be made in Germany, and in which the Wright machine must accomplish the performances claimed for it. When speaking with the Wright Brothers" representative. ] naturally asked why they did not come forward and compete for the £2,000 prize offered by Deutsch-Archdeacon for a kilometre circuit. 'We are running for higher stakes' was the answer immediatelv given me."—The Car.
U. S. ARMY AERONAUTICS.
The balloon house which was constructed some years ago at the Signal Corps post oí Fort Myer, Ya.. and recently occupied by the Quartermaster's Department, has now been again turned over to the Signal Corps. It will be used for overhauling all Signal Corps balloon material, and conducting experiments, until such time as the new buildings are ready at Fort Omaha. Nebraska.
Some time during the month of December. 1907. the Signal Corps will probably issue a specification and advertisements inviting proposals from manufacturers in the Fnited States to build a small 2-man dirigible balloon for the Signal Corps. These advertisements will be sent to any persons in the Fnited States who are prepared to build dirigible balloons, if they will apply to the Signal Office. War Department, for a copy of the specification, and stating their experience and facilities for manufacturing dirigibles.
CURTISS MOTOR VEHICLE CO.
Announcement is made of the completion of the organization of the Curtiss Motor Vehicle Company, of Hammondsport. X. Y. The company is a consolidation of two or three concerns. It will manufacture the Curtiss engine and motorcycle, dirigible balloons, living machines and also a low priced automobile.
'The officers are: Mr. W. G. Critchlow. President: Mr. G. IT. Curtiss. Vice-President and General Manager: Mr. L. 1). Massen, Secretary Treasurer.
Dr. Alexander Graham lull's Aerial Experiment Association will make Hammondsport the Winter headquarters.
NEW AERONAUTIC HANDBOOK.
TEE l'EOBLEM OF FLIGHT, by Herbert Chatley. 15. Sc. is the latest work ֯n aeronautic? and should appeal to the practical man. The contents of the book are as follows: Causes of Progress in Aeronautics—Classes of Air-vessels—Dirigible Balloons—Gasless Machines—Balancing—Nine Essential Principles—Chanute's Criteria—Nature of a Helix—Thrust, Velocity, Weight and Power—Values of "w" —Helix Shafts—The Level Governor—Thrust and Pesistance—Position of Axis of Thrust—Vertical Helix—Types of Propellers—Construction of Helix—Resistance of Air—Wind Pressure and Inclination of Plane—Besearches into Subject of Wind Pressure—Balancing of Aeroplane Systems—Stresses in Stays—Starting Aeroplanes—Angle of Elevation—Aera—Insect Flight—Bird Flight—Besearches of Pettigrew .and Ma rev Vertical Fans—Artificial Bird—Equation of Motion— Ascensional Force—Pesistance to Balloon—Electrical Machinery—Researches of Renard and Krebs—Form, of Minimum Pesistance—Sine Curve—Author's Helicon of—Rudder—Motor and Fittings—Balancing—Stability—Oscillation. The book is fully illustrated and has much useful data. Published by T B. Lippincott Co.: obtainable through this magazine. Price $f>.o0.
Dec. 8.—Aeroplane race at Lssy les Moulineaux.
1911.—Internationa] assembly of dirigibles in Italy, under the auspices of the So cieta Aeronautica Italiana.
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS
Editor of the American Magazine of Aeronautics, New York City.
Dear Sir :
In Professor Langley's " Aerodynamics," on page 60, he says the weight of his experimental aeroplane, when it is exactly balanced by the upward component of the air pressure, is equaled by Pa cos a ; Pa being the normal pressure. I suppose that he worked it out somewhat as follows :
Let ABC be the surface of the aeroplane, and EDC a horizon- A tal line; then the angle BCD will be the angles. Then let KB represent the normal pressure. Pa. By the resolution of forces the upward component (equals W) will be EF or DB. Now, since the angle EBD is also equal to the angle a, then DB=EB cos a, or W=Pa cos a.
Thi-; is all very clear ; but, if BD=W, its normal component by the resolution of forces will equal BG, and not BE ; and the weight of the apparatus, in resisting the normal pressure of the air, would only be represented by BG. This being the case, it would appear by the resolution of forces that, while the vertical component of the normal air pressure balances the weight, the normal component of the weight does not balance the air pressure. Otherwise stated : W=BD=EB cos a=Va. cos a (by Langley); but, reversing the formula, Pa2= BG=BD cos a=W cos a. Pa2 is intended to represent Pa as found by the second method. If Pa2=W cos a, then W=Pa2
Pa cos a\ but Pa2 should equal Pa, in which case
—. Thetefore, Pa2 —^—=:
a . ' cos a
—=cos a. Of course, this
is impossible, except when a=0 : but what is the matter with the formulas ; which is right ; and what is the correct balance?
Will you kindly explain this matter, and greatly oblige,
Yours very truly, R. W. S.
A NEW FLAPPING WING MACHINE.
Mr. Stanislaus von Wiszcewsky has applied for patent on a new flapping
wing machine. The wings measure 25 feet from tip to tip and 8 feet from front to rear. The total length of the machine from front to rear, including rudder, is 16 feet. There are 10 "flaps" to each wing which are intended to offer little resistance to the air on the up stroke but to furnish lifting power on the down stroke. In speaking of his machine, the inventor stated :
"Studying natural flight all my life, I never found any reason to doubt that flight was anything but a mechanical art; merely a question of levity and power. The wings are levers of the second (?) order. The tips of the wings of nearly all flying the wiszcewsky machine. creatures move in a vertical direction,
up and down at the beginning of the flight, about 30 feet in each second. The resisting air (the fulcrum) yields to
the wing's center of pressure, which is near the tip, in half a second (on the down stroke of the wing) 12 feet, or 24 feet in one second of effective lifting. Thus, in order to lift the body (relatively to the ground) 1 foot, it must actually be lifted 25 feet in each second. According to this law, an eagle weighing 10 pounds would have to develop nearly one-half a horsepower at the beginning of its flight. A natural flying machine weighing 600 pounds needs close to 30 horsepower to start it into the air. Considering the loss by friction, etc., I think a 40 horsepower motor is necessary. This explains why all attempts of men to fly with wings have failed for lack of a sufficient light motor of great power. Many models having india rubber for power were successful because rubber can, for a short time, develop more power per pound than any motor so far invented. I have never heard of a full sized machine which had wings light and strong enough for the purpose. Bamboo sticks can never serve as levers for a 40 horsepower motor. The wings of my machine are not only light and strong enough but are on the down stroke, in its concaveness and obliquity, a true counterpart of the bird's wings, and more effective than the natural wings, because the reaction on the up stroke is reduced to a minimum."
AERONAUTICAL SOCIETIES OF THE WORLD. Reprinted by Request. International.
The International Commission for Sfiditi fit- Aeronautics.
The Permanent International Aeronautical Committee, Pres., Prof. Hergesell,
Meteorological Institute, Strasslmrg, i.F., Germany. Federatimi Aéronautique Internationale. 84 Faubourg St. Honoré, Paris. France.
The clubs marked with an asterisk (*) are members of this federation.
*Aero Club de France. 84 Faubourg St. Honore, Paris, France. Aéronautique Club de France, 58 Pue .1. .1. Rousseau, Paris, France. Académie Aéronautique de France. 14 Rue des Goneourts, Paris, France. Société Français de Navigation Aérienne, li) line Blanche. Paris. France. Société des Aeronautics du Siege. Paris. France. Aero Club du Sud-Fst. Bordeaux, France. Aero Club du Rhone. A Quai Pêcherie. Lyon, France. Aero Club du Nord. 4 Rue de la Gare. Boubaiw France. Club Aéronautique de l'Aube. 23 Place de la Bonneterie. Troye, France. Automobile Club de Nice. Section Aéronautique, i Promenade des Anglais, Nice, France.
Aviation Club de France, 3 Rue Taitbout, Paris. France.
Gek.maxv axi) ArsTiiiA.
^Deutscher Luftsohilfer-Verband, c o Hauptmann Hildebrandt, Kirchstr. 2. Charlottenburg, Germany.
Berliner Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Dresdenerstrasse 38. Berlin. S. 14, Germany.
Münchener Verein für Luftschiffahrt. Kaufingerstrasse 2(>. Munich. Germany.
Oberrheinischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt, Münsterplatz 0. Strassburg. i. F., Germany.
Augsburger Verein für Luftschiffahrt. 83 Carolinenstrasse. Augsburg. Germany. Niederrheinischcr Verein für Luftschiffahrt. 33 Königstrasse. Barmen. Germany. Posener Verein für Luftschiffahrt. 10 Gartenstrasse. Posen. Germany.
Ostdeutscher Verein für Luftschiffahrt, Ostbank für Ifäüdel und Geweihe, 9 Pohlmannstrasse, Graudenz. Germany.
Frankischer Verein für Luftschiffahrt, 11 Bergcrmeisterstrasse, Würzbnrg, Germany.
Alittelrheinisehei* Verein für Luftschiffahrt, Casinostrasse 37, Coblenz, Germany. Kölner Verein fur Luftschiffahrt, Kallenburg 1-3, Köln, German}'. Physikalischer Verein in Frankfort a.Vf., Stiftstrasse 32, Frankfort, Germany. Motorluftschiff-Studiengesellschaft m.b.FL. Spandauerweg, Berlin, Germany. Wiener Flugtechnischer Verein, Eschengasse 9, Vienna 1, Austria. Wiener Aero Club, Annahof 3, Vienna I., Austria.
*Aero Club de Belgique, 5 Place Loyale. Brussels. Belgium. Aero Club des Flandres. Flanders, Belgium.
♦Aero Club of the United Kingdom, 1G6 Picadilly, London, W.. England. Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. 53 Victoria St., London, S. AAT., England.
♦Società Aeronautica Italiana. A'ia delle Murattc 70. Rome. Italy.
*Beal Aero Club de tfspana. Alcala 70, Madrid, Spain.
*Aero Club Suisse. Iliirschengraben 3. Berne. Switzerland.
*Svenska Aeronautiska Sallskapet. Stockholm. Sweden.
Russian Aeronautical Society. Panteleimonskojaz. St. Petersburg.
♦Aero Club of America, 12 East 42nd St., New York. Aero Club of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Pa.
Ben Franklin Aeronautical Society of the Inited States. Sehuvler Building. 6th
and Diamond Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. Aero Club of St. Louis, 7 04 Locust St., St. Louis. Alo. Aero Club of Chicago, 79 Randolph St.. Chicago. 111. Aéronautique Club of Chicago. Chicago, 111. Aero Club of New England, Hotel Touraine, Boston, Atass. Pittsfleld Aero Club, Pittsfield, Afass.
In publishing the list of societies in the November number through an error the Ben Franklin association was omitted, and it was stated that the Italian Society was under the patronage of the King of Spain. This should have read "King of Italv."' We also neglected to state that the Swedish club is also a member of the F. A. I.
RARE AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE
This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure.
If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned. Astra Castra (Hatton Turner). Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top, uncut, London, 1865............$15.00
An Account of the First Aerial Voyage inEngland (Vincent
Lunardi). Portrait of Lunardi by Bartolozzi and plates. Crown Svo, half calf, uncut, London, 1784. Autograph "V. Lunardi" on fly-leaf......... 15.00
Travels in the Air (James Glai-sher). Svo., cloth, London, 1871........................ 10.00
Crotchets in the Air (John Poole). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1838 ......................... 5-00
Flying and No Failure. Very rare reprint. Pamphlet. London, 1751.................. 3.00
By Land and Sky (John M. Bacon). Four illustrations. 8vo, cloth, uncut, London, 1901 2.50
A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Plates by Gordon Ross. Svo, boards, uncut. San Francisco, 1902. Limited edition .................. 2.50
Five Weeks in a Balloon (Wm. Lackland). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1S69.....ծ............... 2.50
Wonderful Balloon Ascents (F. Marion). 12 mo., half leather, N. Y, 1871 ........ծ........ 2.50
My Airships (Santos-Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1904......... 1 40
The Dominion of the Air. The
story of aerial navigation. Illustrations from photographs. Crown, Svo, cloth, London, n. d......................... 2.00
My Life and Balloon Experiences. Photograph of author. Crown, Svo, cloth. London, 1S87 ......................... 2.00
Travels in Space (G. S. Valentine and F. L. Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim, 61 plates. 8vo, cloth, London, 1902............... 2.00
Balloon Travels (Robert Merry).
12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1865 .... $ 2.50
Aerodynamics. Illustrated. 1891. 2.00
Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1902 ......................... 2.00
The Motor and its Chief Application, Wings, Propulsion in Air, etc. (Coin, of Pat., 1849). Svo., paper .................. 1.50
La Machine Animale (J. Marey). Illustrated, Svo, cloth, Paris, 187S, French ................ 1.25
Balloons, Airships and Flying Machines (Gertrude Bacon). 12 mo., cloth, X. Y., 1905 .... 1.00
These columns are open to everyone at 3 cents a word.
I have a light weight gas turbine proposition and would like to interest capital for the development of same. I have had tvent3--five years in sheet metal and mechanical work, spinnings and stamping, as a manufacturer. For further particulars address, JAM, this office.
Opportunity to have constructed a flapping wing machine. Will furnish all details and supervise work without charge. See description this issue. Address Stanislaus von Wisczewskv, 94 Division St. New York.
Goerz-Anschutz balloon camera with or without tclephoto lens. Used by prominent aeronauts abroad and offered as prizes at international Aeronautic Photographic Competition. G.
Please send us lists of an}' rare and contemporaneous aeronautic books, pamphlets and prints which you have for sale. American Magazine of Aeronautics.
Technical mechanic, with several years' executive experience with models, drawing, sketching, experimental work ; English, French, German and Italian languages; accurate automobile chauffeur and repairer: wishes position. OG.
The "SUN" Typewriter No. 2
Modern business methods demand the use of the typewriter in correspondence. To gain a man's attention your letter initst be typewritten. Do not waste good effort in accomplishing nothing with long hand letters. Show that you mean business by business-like letters. The "SUN" suits the need of the inventor, the merchant, the writer. Let us tell you about it.
SUN TYPEWRITER COMPANY 317 Broadway = = New York
Ree. ALTITUDE BAROMETERS, Recording THERMOMETERS, Recording HYGROMETERS, STATOSCOPES.
Used by ALL Aeronauts, here and abroad Built by M. JULES RICHARD, Paris, France.
E. H. DUVIVIER,
14 Church Street, New York. Sole U. S. Rep.
OfliciaT Instruments in Gordon Bennett Kace, S"»t. Louis.
THE PROBLEM OF FLIGHT
A New Text=book of Aerial Engineering. By Herbert Chatley, B. Sc.
*r Classes of Machine—Essential Principles—The Helix—The Aeroplane— Aviplanes—Dirigible Balloons—Form and Fittings of the Airship. ■ Profusely Illustrated.
POCKET BOOK OF AERONAUTICS
A Manual of Aviation and Aerostation
By Major Hermann W. E. Moedebeck (English Edition) Cloth, 496 pages, $3.25
BALLOONING AS A SPORT
By Major B. Baden Powell
With chapters on recent history, personal experiences, and a guide to the practice of Ballooning;. ^ Illustrated by photographs.
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS
142 West 65th Street, New York.
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WILL BE PUBLISHED IN BOOK FORM.
Applications should be made at once as only a limited edition will be printed.
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FOREIGN AERONAUTICAL JOURNALS.
TECHNICAL REVIEW OF AERIAL LOCOMOTION.
Founded in 1893. Published the 15th of each month. 1 number - 1 Franc Published with the collaboration of the principal savants, in France and abroad.
Director - Founder : Georges Besancon. Complete Collection of l'Aérophile, 14 vols., 1893-1906, for sale at 10 francs
Subscription, U. S. 84 Faubourg St.
]2 francs. Official Bulletin of the Aero Club of France. Honore, Paris.
ILLUSTRIERTE AERONAUTISCHE MITTEILUNGEN German illustrated Aeronautical Record. Monthly.
OFFICIAL, ORGAN OF THE GERMAN AERONAUTICAL UNION
THE SOCIETY OF AVIATION OF VIENNA. Contains Articles In German, English and French.
Founded 1S97 by H. \V. L. Moedebeck. Edited by Dr. H. Elias, Berlin S. W. 47, Katzbachstrasse, 15. Subscription, U. S. #3-4° Send orders to
G. E. Steckert & Co., 129 W. 20th St., New York, or to B. Westermann & Co., 11 E. 17th St., New York, or direct to the Publisher, Karl J. Trübner, Strassburg (Els.), Germany.
WIENER LUFTSCHIFFER-ZEITUNG. Von Victor Silberer.
Die "Wiener Luftschlffer=Zeitung" erscheint jeden Monat und bringt ausser gediegenen fachwissenschaftlichen Aufsätzen alles Wissenswerte aus dem Gebiete der Luftschiffahrt und Flugtechnik. Sie berichtet über die Versammlungen der Aëro-Klubs und der flugtechnischen Vereine, über Vorträge, über Erfindungen und Experimente, über interessante Luftfahrten, über neue Bücher und Projekte, kurz, sie hält die Fachwelt vollständig auf dem laufenden.
Bezugspreis ganzjährig 12 Kronen. Wien, I., St. Auuahof.
L'AEROSTATION.—t ri-monthly review of the Académie Aéronautique de France—Société d'Encouragement à la Navigation Aérienne.
Subscription Founder : Louis PiLLET.
2.50 francs per annum. Director: Victor Louet.
This interesting publication contains a complete report of the meetings of
the society, notices of balloons, aerial voyages, aviation, &c.
Address: M. VICTOR LOUET, 14 rue des Qoncourt, Paris.
Monthly Illustrated Journal of Aerial Navigation
Subscription 9 francs.
Published l>v l'Aéro-Club du Rhône et du Sud-Est.
Director-Founder : Antonin Bouladb. Organ of general aeronautics, research and study of aerostation and aviation. Publishes the official communications of the A. C. D. R.
Rédaction : 4, Rue St. Gervais, Monplaisir, Lyon. Administration : Aéro-Club du Rhône, 4, Quai Pêcherie, Lyon.
LA REVUE DE L'AVIATION.
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U. S. 8 francs. Paris — 104, Rue de Richelieu, 104 — Paris.
BULLETIN OF THE AERO CLUB SUISSE.
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AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL Official Organ of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
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LA CONQUETE DE L'AIR Official Organ of the Aero Club de Belgique Subscription, Bi-monthly 214 Rue Royale,
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L'AERONAUTE Official Organ of Société Français de Navigation Aérienne Subscription, 8 francs. Monthly 19 Rue Blanche, Paris.
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MIXCTE DESCRIPTIVE . ICC Of NT OF
"A MOST SURPRISING ENGINE,"
Invented, constructed, and used with the greatest success, by Jacob, the son of Mr. John Daniel, of Royston, the latter of whom, who survived his son, died in 1711, aged 97.
FROM THAT EXCESSIVELY-RARE LITTLE WORK,
"Narrative of the Life and astonishing- Adventures of John Daniel, a smith, at Royston, in Hertfordshire, by the Rev. Ralph Morris,' '—London, 1751.
"It was not long after this, that Jacob desired me to go with him to the mountain, to see him fly his Eagle, as he called it; and I, with great expectations embraced his proposal; telling my wife, what I was going about, and planting her properly to be a spectator of it.
"We loaded the cart, and conducted it up the hill; when discharging it of its burden, we turned the cowr to graze, and began our operation. He first of all struck four poles into the earth at proper distances, measuring them with four bars, in the ends of the two longest of which, on the flat sides, were four holes, into which the four points of the upright poles were to enter, at about three feet high from the ground; then letting the ends of the shorter pieces, (of which there were several) all tennanted at the ends, into mortices or grooves on the inward edges of the two long pieces; he pinned them in very tight, leaving about a foot space unfilled up near one end, where he had contrived a trap door to lift up and shutdown at pleasure; so that when the whole wood-work was framed, it looked like a stage or floor, upon which he could mount, by getting under it, and opening the flap door. In the middle of this floor was a hole about four inches diameter, to let in a pipe like a pump, to the tipper part of which was an handle on each side, and a pendant iron between them, wdiich ran through the pipe beneath the floor; and the pipe itself was held firm in the floor, by four long irons fastened to its body, and screwed down to the floor in a scpiare figure: This was the whole form of the upper surface of the floor.
"Near the extremities of this floor every way, at proper distances, on the under edge, were driven in several flat and broad-headed staples, into each of which were thrust and screwed in a thin iron rib, about three inches broad next the floor, and from thence tapering to a point, at the length of about three yards, so wrought and tempered, as to be exceeding tough and elastick, with each a female screw at about three foot distance from the edge of the floor; these were all cloathed with callicoe dipt in wax, each running into a sort of scabbard or sheath, made proper in the cloth to receive it. and being all screwed to their staples and the floor, made an horizontal superficies of callicoe, (including the floor) of about eight yards diameter, but was somewhat longer than broad.
"On the under side of the floor was a circle of round iron, above five feet diameter, with several upright legs, about a foot long, equal in number to the above described ribs, and standing in the middle space between them; each of
which legs entering upwards through a recipient hole in the floor, was screwed tight by a nut on the upper side of the floor. Between these legs, on the interspaces of the round iron ring, just under each rib, hung ballances, exactly poised upon the ring, with all their ends nearly meeting in the center, under the pipe hole, each of which, by an iron chain fixed to it, was linked to the sucker iron of the pipe or pump, and the other end was, with a like chain, linked to an iron loop, screwed into the female screw of the rib, just placed over it; and then all the cloathing was hooked upon little pegs all round the outward edge of the floor, so close as to keep the air from passing in any quantity.
"Thus the whole apparatus being fixed, my son opened his trap door, and ascending through it, mounted his floor, fixed the handle, and began to play his wings, to see that all was right; (but very gently, for fear of rising off his poles, till he was quite prepared.) I then observed, that when the pump handle was pressed downwards, as in pumping, that raising the sucker, the pendant iron raised the end of the ballances next to it, when the other extremities of the ballances, hooked to the several ribs, necessarily descending, drew their corresponding ribs downward; and that the uplifting of the handle consequently gave the ribs liberty, (through their springiness) to return to their horizontal position again; so that they were raised and deprest, proportiouably to the motion, and force of the handle, and exactly answered the use, and play of wings in birds.
"Having found that every part answered to his wish, and having fastened his trap door down, the whole machine standing at such a height that I could both look under, and over it, it appeared to be of a vast dimension.
"It was of almost an oval form, and each wing extended at least three yards at the sides from the floor, but at the two ends it was somewhat more: and there being a handle on each side the pipe or pump, he could make it go which way he would, by altering his own standing, as he told me, either on the one side or the other of the pump; for the side he stood on being the heaviest, and the other consequently mounting rather the highest; it would always move that way, which end was the highest.
"I told him, I looked upon it as an ingenious sort of whim to try an experiment with, and that as I had seen it play, I was now satisfied it would fly, but advised him to come down for fear of any accident.
"Jacob growing impatient of dela)7; come, father, now I am mounted on my Eagle, says he, you shall see me fly. I would fain have dissuaded him; but he began with his pump handle, and rising gently from the posts, away he went, almost two miles; then working his contrary handle, as he told me, he returned again, and passed by me to the other end of the mountain; then soaring a little as he came near me again; Father, says he, I can keep her up. if you can guide her to the posts. I did so, and he seemed so rejoiced at his flight, and so alert upon it, that perceiving with what ease it was managed, and how readily it went and returned, and he entreating me to take a turn with him, I at last consented. Jacob having brought me to his wish, opened his trap door in great joy and let me up; then making all fast; father, says he, lie you, or sit close to the pump on that side, whilst I work it on this; and seeing me somewhat fearful, don't be afraid, says he, hold by the pump irons, you are as safe here as on the solid earth; then plying his handle, we rose, and away we went." —(! ! !)
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Airship—Baldwin's California Arrow—Patented.
I design and manufacture, Free Balloons, Captive Balloons, Airships, and in fact everything in the hydrogen line of aeronautics. Information relative to dates and terms, cheerfully furnished upon request.
CAPTAIN THOMAS S. BALDWIN
Airship California Arrow
Box 7S Madison Sq. P. O., New York
LEADING BALLOON BUILDER
AERONAUTICAL ENGINEER AND CONSTRUCTOR
AERONAUT LEO STEVENS
INSTRUCTOR TO ARMY BALLOON CORPS
Box 181, Madison square, new York