No. 1, 1907, July, American Magazine of Aeronautics
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Copyrighted, 1907, by Jamestown Official Exposition Co. First Building in the History of Expositions to be Devoted Entirely to Aeronauties.
AERONAUTICS AT THE JAMESTOWN EXPOSITION.
By Israel Ludlow, Superintendent of the Bureau of Aeronautics.
During the winter of 1906 and 1907 there was appointed through the efforts of the officials of the Jamestown Exposition an Aeronautical Committee, including government officials, members of the Aero Club of America, noted scientists and prominent sportsmen. This Committee was officially called the Jamestown Aeronautical Congress. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the United States Weather Bureau, was offered and accepted its Presidency. The Exposition officials agreed to construct and fence in an Aeronautical Concourse, to erect a special building, and to transport free of charge all exhibits to and from the Exposition Crounds ; the Aeronautical Congress agreed to gather all available exhibits of balloon material, scientific instruments adapted for aeronautical purposes, balloons, airships, aeroplanes, hélicoptères- and orthopters, and to make such further efforts as might naturally be in the plan and scope of their organization.
A programme of aeronautical events, including balloon races, airship competitions, aeroplane and kite contests, and pigeon flights were arranged for. The Bureau of Aeronautics was created by the Exposition to correspond with the Bureaus of Yachting, Athletics, Music, etc. Owing to the exceptional inclement weather which prevailed during the Winter and early Spring and to the fact that the United States Government was very late with financial assistance which it has invariably extended of late years to international expositions, the Exposition as a
whole was in an incomplete state on its opening day, and the Aeronautical Building in particular was delayed, making it impossible to adhere strictly to the arranged programme.
The Aeronautical Concourse was dependent for gas upon a three inch main running from the City of Norfolk to the Exposition Grounds, a distance of seven and a half miles. This pipe line was not completed until early in June, and all balloon flights were postponed.
The first aeronautical event was a pigeon flight on May 9th. Five hundred and six pigeons were released for a race to Washington, D. C. It was very successful. A bright clear morning and a gentle southwest wind insured a fair race and no favor. Before leaving the Exposition Grounds the pigeons^ circled twice and then disappeared in the direction of their homing station. Some of the birds were not racers, and the fastest birds hung back with the slowest. The speed was about forty-five miles per hour.
A remarkable feature of this and a succeeding race to New York and Philadelphia was that the Washington pigeons flew to the west of a grand-stand that was directly north of the releasing point, and the New York and Philadelphia pigeons flew to the east of it, correctly selecting the direction for their homeward flight to an exact degree in the points of the compass, although when they passed the stand the birds were flying so low that some flew under its roof. Only half a dozen birds were nonplussed by the broad expanse of water of Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay and turned back. The other's, without hesitancy, went on towards the points from which they were brought in closed crates in express cars.
The next event was the pigeon race of May 19th. About twenty-three hundred birds from New York and Philadelphia took part. The birds were all thoroughbreds and the race was exceptionally successful. The same favorable weather conditions prevailed and the release occupied barely four seconds from the time the lids were thrown open until the last pigeon left the crates.
Pigeon Flight at Jamestown Exposition, May 13, 1907.
The pigeon coops were arranged in a complete circle upon the backs of benches about three feet above ground. The birds, when released at 11.15 A. M., rose in a gigantic column and the sound caused by the violent beating of their wings was one not easily forgotten by those above whose heads the whirling pyramid of pigeons rose. An idea of the swiftness of their wing beat may be gained, when
it is said that cameras which were able to depict a running race horse sharp and distinct, showed but a blur of the moving wings of many of the birds. This lot of pigeons without hesitancy and without circling took a line straight to a point north by east and disappeared before the spectators could fully grasp that the event was over on the Exposition Grounds.
The birds made remarkably fast time and reached New York and Philadelphia in the early afternoon. They travelled at the rate of fifty-nine and a fraction miles per hour. The winning birds in New York district were owned by Henry Ingram of Paterson, N. J., whose pigeons arrived at 4.05.42; Paul F. Miller, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, arrived at 4.17.48; E. W. Davis, Borough of Manhattan, New York City, 4.16.52; Adolph Busch, Staten Island, New York, 4.06.49: J. W. Booth, Essex, N. J., 4-27.34; M. G. Meller, Plainneld, N. J. 4.10.04.
There was a slight superior speed in rate per mile travel by the New York over the Philadelphia birds which is believed to be due to the fact that all the pigeons followed the Atlantic sea coast line, and that the Philadelphia birds turned inward when opposite that city, while the New York birds kept on the ocean front to New York City.
There was considerable discussion among the pigeon fanciers present at the release on the Exposition Grounds as to which crates were the best, those whose tops opened upward or those whose front ends swung outward. Opening the entire top gave a quicker release, while the pigeon fanciers in favor of a front end opening claimed that in allowing the birds to rise en masse there was danger of their beating their wings against each other and fracturing a pinion. The question was not settled by the race as the point arose too late to take definite notes on the matter.
During the last week of May, Lincoln Beachey, a professional aeronaut under the management of Charles J. Strobel, made a series of dirigible balloon flights from the Aeronautical Concourse over the Exposition Grounds landing each time upon the Parade Ground. These nights were very successful and attracted wide local attention. Mr. Beachey had his airship under full control and was able to turn it within its own length. He negotiated very successfully some difficult starts and landings, handicapped by tall turrets on the Warpath and by pine trees.
Early in June, Eugene Godet, a French aeronaut also under the management of Charles J. Strobel, brought to the Exposition in bond a French airship of the latest construction and approved pattern. On the afternoon of June 7th after a day of most strenuous effort to repair a broken shaft, the airship was brought out of the Aeronautical Building in which it was housed, and the engine tested. The day had been a beautiful one, practically no breeze stirring, but late in the afternoon a wind sprang up in the eastern quarter and brought with it heavy clouds. At this time a few drops of rain were falling and the hreeze was freshening every minute. It was with some trepidation that Mr. Godet's assistants saw him essay to make a flight.
There was a crowd of several thousand persons present who would have felt very much disappointed if no flight were made, and to whom an explanation that the weather conditions were unfavorable would have been highly unsatisfactory. Under these circumstances Eugene Godet determined to go up. The wind now freshened until it was blowing between 10 and 12 miles an hour. At his word "Let go" all hands released their grasp on the framework of the airship. Godet rose, advancing slowly upward, slightly against the wind, until the breeze from over the top of the building caught him, when his airship was pushed backward beyond the Aeronautical Concourse into other parts of the Exposition
Grounds. There for a few.moments he again held his own, at a height probably of a hundred feet from the ground. Not being pointed directly into the wind, he drifted sidewise. When dangerously near a tall windmill near the water front, he turned his airship and presented its broadside to the full force of the wind.
With great rapidity he shot directly towards and struck two tall pine trees near the Inside Inn. The force of the wind drove his airship through the branches, breaking his propeller in two, causing the two halves to drop to the ground. His rudder also was completely wrecked, and hung downwards. Pro-pellerless and rudderless he drifted over the roof of the Inside Inn and out over Hampton Roads. He immediately upon passing through the trees pulled his safety \alve, but struck the water the first time about 503 feet from shore. He sank but a few inches and rose buoyantly, making a leap urged by the wind (which was now half a gale) of 800 feet at an elevation of approximately 20 feet, before striking the water a second time. In successive leaps, each of shorter lengths and punctuated by deeper immersions, he went over Hampton Roads toward Old Point Comfort and Fort Monroe which were about live miles distant.
Anchored in Hampton Roads was the line of battleships and many navy launches put off to the rescue, as well as row boats from the Exposition side. A launch belonging to the Battleship "Minnesota" was the first to reach the aeronaut, and its occupants grabbed the drag-rope, but were unable to tow the balloon against the wind, and the launch was dragged through the water by the airship until the airship struck the Battleship Alabama. At this time it was surrounded by six launches. Godet was in no danger,—he refused to desert his ship and remained in the framework until hauled upon the foredeck of the battleship, where the gas envelope was deflated. It was packed and returned to the Exposition Grounds by the launch. The framework was so wrecked that a new one has been constructed.
On June 8th, dedication exercises were held in the Aeronautical Building. Robert H. Sexton, Chief of the Department of Congress and Special Events, Augustus Post, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Jamestown Aeronautical Congress; Harry St. George Tucker, President of the Jamestown Exposition; Admiral C. M. Chester of the U. S. Navy and myself were the speakers. Admiral Chester's speech was especially noteworthy being devoted to the advocacy of the aeroplane as an engine of warfare. He laid especially stress upon the possibilities of the Jamestown Exposition. He stated "that the U'. S. Government would look to private experimenters for the practical solution of the problem of aerial locomotion, and that he hoped that the Exposition at Jamestown in bringing together the models and ideas of many inventors, would be of great value to the science, and that the effort of the Jamestown officials deserve the enthusiastic co-operation of all interested in aerial navigation.
Numerous exhibits are now installed in the building and in addition construction work on airships, aeroplanes and balloons will be carried on steadily during the time of the Exposition. There are now two airships and an aeroplane being built. The postponed balloon competition will be carried out if possible. The gas-pipe line has been tested, and has been found capable of delivering seven thousand five hundred cubic feet of gas per hour. Great interest is evinced in the aeroplane contest on September 14th for the Scientific American Cup of one thousand dollars, and in the kite contest in the latter part of October for the Octave Chanute trophies. Eugene Godet will make daily ascensions, (weather permitting) during the months of July and August in his airship which has been completely repaired.
Copyrighted, 1907, by Jamestown Official Exposition Co. Jamestown Exposition—Aeronautic Building on Right.
CONDITIONS OF SUCCESS WITH FLYING MACHINES.
By O. Chanute.
Fascinated by the now acknowledged success of the Wright brothers in America, and tempted by the facilities which light motors, so recently developed, offer for rising on the air, some 30 or 40 European aviators have built or are building, "de toutes pieces," motor-equipped flying machines on wheels, in the hope of speedily accomplishing mechanical flight. Thus far (June, 1907), they have been unsuccessful. They have made some fairly long jumps with their wheeled grasshoppers, but nothing like continuous flight has been accomplished.
It is believed that these aviators are beginning at the wrong end and taking the longest path to success. They will meet continued mishaps and some of them may get hurt. Paradoxical as it may seem it is necessary to know how to use a flying machine before trusting oneself to really fly with it. Assuming that all the other prerequisites mentioned below have been complied with, it is yet indispensable that the machine shall possess equilibrium in the air under all circumstances and turmoils of the wind, and that the operator shall know how to manage it.
Those other prerequisites which should govern the design are the following: 1st. Ability to steer, both horizontally and vertically. Without this ability disaster is sure to follow.
2d. Adequate amount and shape of sustaining surface. Some of the European machines are loaded to 2V2 to 4j<2 pounds to the square foot, thus requiring high speeds for support. For a beginning it is not advisable to load the machines more than il/2 to 2 pounds per square foot. As to the shapes, both in plan and in cross section, it is advisable to seek for those surfaces which afford the greatest "lift" in proportion to the "drift," provided they are stable. This will best be developed by laboratory experiments, which seem to have been neglected.
3d. Least possible resistance of framing and hull. Very little consideration has been given to this: Notably by Santos-Dumont, in whose apparatus the head resistance must have been five or six times the drift, thus requiring much power. Col. Renard once figured out that for best results the head resistance should be equal to the drift and that the ?i'ork done was a minimum when the
resistance of the drift was equal to three times the resistance of the hull.
4th. Lightest possible motor in proportion to its weight. This is obvious enough. Gasoline motors have now been reduced to a weight of 4 or 5 pounds per horse power.
5th. Best efficiency of propeller. Much remains to be found out. The controversy between adherents of the beating wing and of the screw propeller is still unsettled. The best forms of the latter are not determined. It is a subject for laboratory experiments.
6th. Equilibrium. Equilibrium has at last been recognized as the most important condition to fulfill. It is possible to develop a flying machine which shall be automatically stable in the air; which will right itself up in every wind gust, if there is enough height or space to do so before it comes down to the ground, but such a machine is not yet known. With the small leaps of the motor-driven machine there is no room to operate an automatic stability device. It is true that those short leaps are an element of safety to the operator. He cannot fall far and is in small danger of personal injury, but the machine is nearly sure to be broken in coming down at each test and this costs time and money for repairs. It is very probable that the present motor-equipped machines about to be tried will give unsatisfactory results, simply because the men who arc testing them have had no previous experience in handling such an apparatus in the air. This it is that defeated some year's ago the efforts of Maxim, Ader, Langley, Kress and others, who had nevertheless produced intelligent designs. This brings us to the last condition to be fulfilled.
7th. Learning Iwzv to fly. There is a way, practiced by all little birds, in which the use of a flying machine may be learned. It is to begin by gliding. The fledgeling tumbles out of the nest, he flutters desperately, he generally loses his equilibrium and then he glides down with seldom serious hurt. The parent bird then helps him back from branch to branch and teaches him the use of his wings. Captain Ferber recently published in "Omnia" an amusing account of a vulture who was taught first to glide and then to fly by a man.
Something analogous will have to be done by aviators. This is preferably accomplished by first building a gliding machine of the type which is intended for the flying machine and testing it personally on a sandy hillside to develop its defects in stability and to learn its control. This was the course recommended to the French aviators by myself in a paper published in "Aerophile" for August, 1903. At first they accepted the advice and made a lot of gliding experiments with moderate success, on the sand hills near Berck, but they became impatient at the slow progress accomplished, tried other methods, such as going up as a kite towed by a launch, and then they were tempted by the light motors to "get ahead of the Wrights," oblivious to the fact that the latter had spent three years in gliding before they ventured to put on a motor. Now, M. Leon Dclagran'ge, after making quite a number of short flights (the longest about 200 feet) with his motor flying machine, has found it advisable to go with M. Voisin, the cleverest of the French flying machine pilots, to experiment with a gliding apparatus on the sand hills near Le Tonquet.
The mode of conducting such experiments has been described by the various experimenters. It consists in first testing the apparatus as a kite and measuring accurately the "lift," the "drift," the "head resistance" and the location of the "centre of pressure" at various angles of incidence. If the relations between these conditions prove unsatisfactory they can be altered by changing the cross section by trussing the ribs. Then glides can be made by running and jumping into a
head wind, noting carefully the angle of descent, which should be finally as flat as possible with adequate stability.
It is great sport; the chances of accident arc not great to careful men who proceed step by step, and it enables the aviator to develop gradually the best shapes of surfaces and framing for his particular design; while, more important than all, it gives him experience and skill to manage his motor flying machine when he finally comes to the point of testing it.
THEORY OF BALLOON LEAKAGE.
By A. F. Zahm, Ph. D.
In order to compute the rate of leakage of gas through the envelope of a balloon under given conditions, it is well first to derive a rational formula, then to determine the physical constants of the formula by direct experimentation. An attempt is here made to derive a suitable formula, based upon well established laws governing the motion of fluids.
The leakage through the canvas at any point of the balloon envelope is due to two causes; viz., to the internal pressure at the point and to the osmotic diffusion which may prevail there independently of the pressure. By summing these over the entire envelope an expression is found for the total leakage.
Suppose that, owing to osmotic diffusion a units of mass of gas creep through a square unit of the canvas per unit of time under no internal pressure. Then the entire leakage all over the balloon, per unit of time, due to osmosis, may be represented by the formula:
L, = a S
where 5" represents the surface of the envelope.
Again suppose that b units of mass of the gas permeate a square unit of the canvas per unit of time under one unit of pressure. Then under p units -of pressure the leakage will be V/> times as great, since the flow of a gas through an orifice is approximately proportional to the square root of the pressure, for the conditions here considered. Hence the entire leakage all over the balloon per unit of time, due to internal pressure, is given by the formula:
La = hf p" dS
which can be integrated when the buoyancy of the gas and form of the surface are given.
The total leakage of gas per unit of time over the entire envelope of the balloon due to osmosis and pressure combined, being the sum of the above terms may therefore be written:
L = aS + hf y dS..........................(A)
which is the general formula sought for the mass rate of leakage, and is applicable to a balloon of any shape.
In order to render this general expression more convenient in practice, let us adapt the integral term to some common forms of balloons. And first suppose that the balloon is a surface of revolution about a vertical axis.
If the bottom point of the balloon axis be taken as origin, (and y be the vertical distance to any level plane section, the buoyant pressure all over this section may be written:
P = Po + y 7
in which />0is the pressure at the bottom of the balloon and y is the buoyancy of a cubic unit of the gas. Also if dS be the area of an elementary horizontal belt, or zone, of the surface, of radius .r, and width ds, it may be written:
dS = 2 7T x ds
in which ds is an element of the generating curve. Substituting these values of the pressure and surface in the general leakage formula it becomes:
L = a S + 2 7t b /"(Pn 4- y y)2 x ds
which is applicable to a vertical surface of revolution whose contour is given.
If the balloon be of spherical form the value of L is still more simple, for we may in that case write:
dS = 2 n r d y
in which r is the radius of the surface. Substituting this value of dS, and the above value of p, the general leakage formula becomes :
L = aS + 27rbry*(p0 + ^ y) d y
which is the general formula for the mass rate of leakage of a spherical balloon inflated under pressure.
Tn case the bottom of the balloon, supposed full of gas, is left open, fi0=o and the formula becomes:
Iv = 4 7T a r2 + n b y* r"
which is applicable to the ordinary free or captive balloon.
In computing the leakage of small balloons inflated under considerable pressure, such as rubber balloons, the buoyant pressure may be neglected and the formula becomes:
L = 4 ^ a r2 -f 4 7T b r2 p2
L, = (a + bVp) S In order that the various formulae here derived may be practically available for computation it is necessary that the physical constants a and b be determined by direct experiment for the diverse gases and fabrics under suitable conditions.
By a proper arrangement of the apparatus, the results of experiment can be very simply expressed by means of formula (A). If the gas under constant pressure p, be made to pass through a level aperture of one square foot rrea S, covered with the fabric to be tested, and if the mass leakage per unit time L, be observed, the relations between the leakage and pressure will be given by formula (A) as follows:
L, = a + b<\/p
in which L and p are the values observed and a, b the physical constants to be determined for the given gas and fabric.
A convenient way to exhibit the results would be to plot L and -\/p on plane section paper, thus obtaining a straight line for a diagram. A more convenient way still, would be to plot L and p directly on logarithmic paper, thus obviating the work of extracting the square roots, and still obtaining a rectilinear diagram.
The advantage of having a working formula was suggested to me by a conversation with Captain Chandler who has in hand some experiments for the U. S. War Department to determine the leakage coefficient for various balloon fabrics. April, 1907.
ENGLISH AERO CLUB EXHIBITION.
By Wilbur R. Kimball.
If such a thing were necessary, the study of aeronautics in England certainly had a stimulus at the Aero Club Exhibition and Contest in April. The exhibition at Agricultural Hall from the 6th to the 13th, followed by the competitive tests at Alexandra Palace on the 15th, was a natural sequence of events tending to stimulate interest in this subject to the utmost. While there was considerable space given up to balloons and their accessories at the exhibition, the fact that the display of aeroplanes and flying machines proper occupied some eighty-seven stands is sufficient guarantee of the comprehensiveness of the exhibit and of 'the trend of thought of a large number of inventors.
Although many of these models exhibited an utter lack of knowledge of fundamental principles, yet there were a considerable number that appealed to the better judgment and by actual test demonstrated a considerable measure of practicability. Most experimenters with kite-flying are aware that nearly any shaped surface or combination of surfaces that do not form a wedge can be raised and held in the air by a flying line, and, conversely, a wide variety of surfaces can be driven in the air in such a manner as to maintain the apparatus in the air, but with wide variations in necessary steadiness, speed and efficiency of motive power. Those machines which carried themselves to the best advantage were undoubtedly of the type with which has been associated the names of the Wright Brothers, Herring, Chanute and others still earlier, namely, a single section of the familiar box kite with variations in the controlling devices and curvature of the surfaces.
A V. Koe's Model
At the morning contest in Central Hall of the Alexandra Palace, it was estimated that a thousand people were in attendance. There were twenty-nine entries and fifteen competitors for prizes. Undoubtedly the decided increase over previous exhibitions in the size of the models was due to the stipulation that to be eligible for entry the model must weigh not less than two pounds, nor more than fifty pounds. The prizes offered by the club were $750, $375 and $100, respectively, with a condition that the models must fly at least fifty feet starting from an altitude of not more than five feet. The first prize was not awarded and will be held as a fund for use in future competitions. The
second fell to A. V. Roe and the third to W. F. Howard. The judges were Professors Huntington and Wayneforth, Col. Capper, Roger Wallace and P. Y. Alexander. Mr. Roe's winning model was of two superposed planes, driven at the rear by a single propeller. The motive power was twisted rubber mounted in a long triangular framework extended well in front. Indoors it flew a distance of about eighty feet at a height of about a foot above the floor, not doing quite as well at the outdoor contest in the afternoon. Mr. Howard's machine was a single plane bent at its longitudinal diagonal so as to form a dihedral angle. It was of very light kite-like construction with a small clockwork spring motive which drove one small propeller at the front. A considerable number of trials were made, the majority being satisfactory. Contrary to the Roe model, it made its longest flights in the open of something over a hundred feet against seventy-five feet at the morning trials.
the machine is under way. Tn regard to flapping wing machines it has always seemed to the writer that, as in other mechanical movements, a reciprocating movement should always be replaced by a rotary motion where possible.
The action of some of the models was erratic and disappointing in the extreme, owing to the rapid deterioration and changing conditions of the twisted rubber used as a motive power, a fact which explains why models which had probably been carefully adjusted for the contest a few hours before caused their owners dismay by their antics at the public demonstration. Rubber ages very rapidly when under strain or even exposed to light and heat and as practically any small model has a "critical speed" necessary for complete equilibrium, slight variations are likely to cause disastrous results.
Of the fifteen competitors, seven made their machines cover a greater or less distance in free flight. Of these, five used twisted rubber, one a clock spring and one a rocket. One or two small petrol motors were attached to models but these developed troubles too serious to be overcome in time for a demonstration. This is to be regretted in one case in particular, that of the Chubb helicopter, as the design and workmanship merited recognition. In this machine two screws were mounted on vertical shafts, one inside the other, with a transmission system that permitted them revolving in opposite directions. A vertical rudder was provided for maintaining a given course, and a bowsprit projecting in front for a counterbalancing weight to compensate for the shifting of the centre of air pressure ahead of the centre of gravity. There
W. F. Howard's Model.
Of the other models exhibited and tried, a number deserve more than passing mention. judging from the number of designs of each, the relative importance of the aeroplane, the flapping wing machine and the helicopter or direct lift machine are favorites in the order named. While the last undoubtedly consumes more power in overcoming inertia at the start, this excess of power becomes available for increased speed when
is probably no surer mark of correct design in small models than the provision for such an adjustment. With one exception, all of the successful machines were launched from the hand, thus furnishing the power necessary for acceleration without drawing upon the slender store of power until the flight was fairly under way. The exception was the Balston machine, a kite-like structure of two superimposed aero-curves on each side of a central bamboo framework containing the motive power driving a propeller in the rear. Twisted rubber was the power. It lifted itself clear of the floor and covered about 12 feet in the air. The distance flown by a small model is the least significant of any feature, providing this be long enough to make sufficient observation of its equilibrium and afford an approximate estimate of the power absorbed.
It is more than probable that there was not sufficient inducement in the prizes offered to bring out the best designed machines and that more than one "dark horse" is in position to bring out a man-carrying device when the psychological moment arrives.
FIRST PRIVATE AERODROME IN AMERICA.
The illustration is that of the aerodrome of G. H. Curtiss at Hammondsport, N. Y. This has been built in response to a need for a large building in which
G. H. Curliss' Aerodrome.
to continue his experiments and is the first one to be built solely for private use. Captain Baldwin has been using it during the past Winter in making some radical alterations in his airship. The building measures 40 by 75 feet, and is 27 feet high.
THE METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS ABOVE SAINT LOUIS.
By Professor A. L. Rotcli, Director of the Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory.
In the circular letter from the president of the Aero Club of America concerning the next Gordon-Bennett balloon race, it is said that the observations of the Weather Bureau with kites and pilot-balloons at St. Louis show that the upper air moves towards the east. While, of course, this has long been known from the observations of the drift of the upper clouds, 1 desire to point out that our government Weather Bureau has made no observations with pilot-balloons at St. Louis and that the observations quoted are those obtained by this Observatory. With the co-operation of the St. Louis Exposition, the first registering balloons in America were liberated from St. Louis during the autumn of 1904 by my assistants, Messrs. Clayton and Fergusson, and the experiments have been continued at my expense and with aid of the Smithsonian Institution during the past two years at different seasons. As the observations obtained have a special interest in view of the selection of St. Louis as a starting point for the international balloon race next October, I give some facts which may be useful to intending competitors.
The balloons used in my experiments were the rubber balloons of Prof. Dr. Assmann, which are well known in Europe. Each balloon was filled with hydrogen gas and carried a self-recording barometer and thermometer, constructed on Teissererenc de Bort's system, which a parachute covering the upper portion of the balloon brought safely to the ground after the balloon had burst on reaching the maximum height commensurate with its expansion. 56 of these balloons were sent up during the years 1904, 1905 and 1906, and, by remarkable good fortune, 53 balloons with their instruments were found and returned to this Observatory on payment of a small reward to the finders. The records of barometric-pressure and temperature were usually decipherable and from the automatically recorded times of the ascent of the balloon at St. Louis and its descent at a place whose distance and direction from St. Louis are known, the average direction and velocity of its drift can be calculated.
Classifying according to altitude all the ascensions at different seasons of the year, I have obtained the figures for the movement of the air at different heights above St. Louis, which are embodied in the accompanying table. No. 1 embraces the balloons whose maximum height was less than 16,000 feet. No. 2 those in which the maximum height was between 16,000 and 33,000 feet, No. 3 those between 33,000 and 49,000 feet, and No. 4 those of 49,000 or higher.
No. of Ascensions
Mean Max. Altitude (Feet)
Mean Altitude (Feet)
Mean Distance Travelled (Miles)
Mean Velocity (Miles perhr.)
Mean Direction from St. I,.
S. 8l° E.
S. 85° E.
S. 87° E.
S. 79° E.
It will be seen that the velocity, and consequently the distance travelled increases up to the third level, above which there is a slight decrease, and that the lowest balloons took the most southerly course (S. 790 E.) while the level 2 balloons
went nearly due east (S. 87° E.). Naturally, there were great individual differences in velocity and direction. Thus, in level 1, which will hardly be exceeded by the racing balloons next October, one balloon on Nov. 23, 1904, which reached a height of 7,600 feet, travelled 55 miles at an average velocity of 51 miles an hour, while the next day another balloon at a slightly greater height followed the same course but went 90 miles further. The minimum velocity was shown by a balloon on May 17, 1906, which, though it rose to a height of 14,700 feet, travelled only 15 miles northeast at an average speed of only u miles an hour. It appears probable, however, that the balloons which compete in the International Cup Race will travel at the rate of about 25 miles an hour towards a point slightly south of east, the distance, of course, depending upon the length of time that the balloons can keep afloat. In level 3 two balloons in November, 1904, which reached heights of about seven miles travelled at an average speed of 100 miles an hour, one 280 miles east, the other 255 miles south southeast. As this is the average velocity in the upper and lower air strata, the velocity at the maximum altitude in both cases probably much exceeded 100 miles an hour, but such velocities are shown by the measurements of the drift of cirrus clouds at Blue Hill to be not unusual in winter over the United States. Assuming that the mean temperature for October at St. Louis is 59° F., the temperature at two miles will be about 350 F. and at four miles about 150 F. Though far beyond the reach of the manned balloons, it may be interesting to state that in January, 1905, at a height of about nine miles,—uo° F. was recorded by one of the balloons, which is among the lowest natural temperatures ever observed, and that the following July—75° F. was registered at a height of less than nine miles.
FIRST NATIONAL BALLOON RACE IN AMERICA.
A national balloon contest between amateurs for distance will be held at Providence, R. I., Wednesday, July 31, 1907, or the first favorable day thereafter, in connection with "Old Home Week," a tj'pical New England custom of having at more or less frequent periods a reunion of former and present residents. This occasion is the first that Providence has had.
A gasometer of 500.000 cubic feet will supply pure coal gas of .43~44 specific gravity through a 12 inch pipe direct to the grounds. At least six balloons are expected to compete and arrangements will be such that these can be filled simultaneously in one hour.
The race will start from a ten acre level field near the Pawtucket gas works, just out of Providence. There is a magnificent automobile speedway through Blackstone and Swan Point Park, and several trolley lines, direct to the grounds, adjoining Riverside Cemetery on the north, less than three miles from the State capitol, center of Providence.
Gas will be furnished free to contestants, their transportation and that of their balloons will be paid and they will be guests of the city during their stay
Three silver cups will be offered to the entrants making the three longest trips. Another cup will be offered to the first automobile or motorcycle to come up with any balloon at its point of descent, provided such arrival is within thirty minutes of the time of the balloon's landing.
Capt. Thomas S. Baldwin is expected to make some demonstrations with his new dirigible "20th Century," the largest and most powerful in this countiy.
The committee in charge of this event is E. L. Jones and A. L. Stevens. Entries are requested to be sent in at the earliest moment, addressed to E. L. Jones, Chairman, 142 West 65th St., New York. Entries close July 15th.
THE AERO CLUB OF PHILADELPHIA.
By Joseph Jackson.
If one were to look for the genesis of the Aero Club of Philadelphia, he would find it in the first aerial .voyage of its president, Mr. Alfred N. Chandler. The quiet, unostentatious trip made by Mr. Chandler in the Spring of 1906 passed off with so much satisfaction that immediately some of his friends and acquaintances became enthusiastic in their admiration of the sport and the organization of the first balloon club in Philadelphia, and the second one in America, quickly followed as a natural consequence.
Mr. Chandler had been widely known as a yachtsman and automobilist, being a member of the Corinthian Yacht Club and owner of the schooner-yacht "Vigil" which for two years won every race in the yacht club cruises, lie was also recognized as one prominently identified with gentlemanly sports, including auto-mobiling, being now president of the Automobile Club of Philadelphia; but when it became known that he had purchased a balloon and proposed to make an ascent it created great public commotion and there were some who ventured to persuade him to change his mind. This was owing to a popular misconception of the dangers of ballooning. It is extremely difficult to persuade most persons that a balloon voyage is not necessarily dangerous. The success of Mr. Chandler's first trip, if it had any far reaching effect, convinced many who previously were sceptical, that a trip through the air, under proper auspices and circumstances, may not only be entirely safe but positively beneficial.
On May 12th, 1906, Mr. Chandler, accompanied by Henry S. Gratz and Charles Levee, a pilot of the Aero Club of France, startedVJfrpm the Athletic Grounds, adjoining the gas works, at Point Breeze. Mr. Chandler used his own balloon Initial, and, consequently, was the first amateur in this country to ascend in his own aerostat. In Europe this is so common as not to call for comment, but in this country the introduction of a private balloon was so unusual as to excite attention. Having been elected a member of the Aero Club of America and of the Aero Club of France, this pioneer aeronaut decided that membership in these organizations was an empty honor if one did not become an active aerial navigator. With this idea in view and with a belief that he would be assisting to make the sport popular among sportsmen, he started off in the Initial from Point Breeze that May afternoon.
As this ascent is in a measure historic, it may be permissible to record that the start was made at 1.15 P. M. in the presence of a large throng, in which was Samuel A. King and A. Leo Stevens, professional balloonists. The aerostat has a capacity of 35,000 cubic feet. The descent was made at South Amboy, at 2.50 P. M. The distance travelled was about 70 miles, and the greatest altitude reached was 3000 feet.
The greatest enthusiasm on the part of clubmen followed this attempt to bring ballooning into the circle of sports in this country, and the next day there was considerable talk of forming an aero club in this city. The fact that ballooning could be done safely, as evinced by Mr. Chandler's experience, gave immense impetus to the movement, and, on May 24th, there was held at the Racquet Club, a meeting attended by about twenty enthusiasts.
A permanent organization was subsequently formed. Alfred N. Chandler was elected President; Henry S. Gratz, First Vice President; Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton, Second Vice President; E. A. Custer, Secretary; and Dr. P. B. Thatcher, Rev.
Dr. George S. Gassner, F. L. Richardson, and Dr. Samuel J. Ottinger, Directors.
The first ascent under the auspices of the club was made on May 26th, two days after the preliminary meeting. Arrangements had been made for a race The balloons, "Initial," owned by Mr. Chandler, and 'TOrient," belonging to the Aero Club of America, were to start with Mr. Chandler in his aerostat, Mr. Levee, pilot; and Mr. Gratz in 'TOrient,"' with Mr. Stevens, pilot. Each was also to carry a newspaper man to report the race. The wind, however, was blowing too strong, and there being great danger of fouling in getting off, only the Initial, in charge of Mr. Levee, and carrying two newspaper men, was released at 2.33 P. M. and was soon speeding northeast in a 22-knot breeze. At 3.45 P. M. the balloon descended on a farm near Newtown, about 23 miles from the starting point. On this occasion there was flown to the breezes the first aero club pennant to make its appearance in this country. The colors being blue, gold and blue.
On July 26th, 1906, the first scientific experiment undertaken by the club was made. On this date Drs. Fulton and Ottinger in the balloon TOrient, which is a bag of 35,000 cubic feet gas capacity, made an ascent from Point Breeze, where all the ascents of the club are made, owing to the proximity of the gas works. Although the ascension was superintended by the veteran aeronaut, Samuel A. King, Drs. Fulton and Ottinger having had past experience, went up without a professional pilot. In several particulars this was one of the most remarkable ascents ever made in this city. An altitude of over 20,000 feet, or nearly four miles, was reached, and that great height was arrived at while the aerostat drifted only about ten miles. The start was made at 2.1S P. M. and the descent near Media, about 7.30 o'clock.
Drs. Fulton and Ottinger were trying for height and not long distance. They made a new record for altitude in this neighborhood, and also were able to conduct a number of important experiments in connection with aerotherapy. For sometime what has been named aerotherapy has been recognized by European physicians as a great agency in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory tract and of the circulation, and it was possible during this voyage to carefully investigate this department of medical knowledge.
Two other ascents were made under'the club's auspices in the year 1906. On one of these trips, Dr. Ottinger had for companion, Mr. Henry S. Gratz, and on the other, Mr. Alfred T. Atherholt.
The last trip was made on October 6th, when Mr. Atherholt accompanied Dr. Ottinger. The balloon used was Mr. Chandler's aerostat Initial. The aerial voyagers had the most exciting trip in their lives. For six hours they were in the midst of a hurricane, they encountered an aerial thunder storm, nearly descended into a lake, and, altogether, saw something of the seamy side of ballooning but made a safe landing. They left Point Breeze at 12.20 P. M., met a hurricane at Mt. Pocono, at 2.30, and landed at Rockaway, near Passaic, New Jersey, at 5 o'clock. In all, 233 miles had been covered in 385 minutes.
Another memorable trip under the club's auspices, was made by Mr. Chandler. This was on March 23rd. of this year, the only voyage, so far undertaken this season. The balloon Initial was used, and Mr. Alan R. Ilawley, member of the Aero Club of America, went along as amateur pilot. Mr. Hawley, it might be mentioned, was qualifying as pilot for the International Race to be held in St. Louis this Summer. The start was made at 12.25 P. M., and as the wind was almost direct east, the trip ended on the Atlantic City meadows, where a landing was made at 3.10 P. M. An attempt was made to reach the sand beach at Atlantic City, but a repelling sea breeze near the surface prevented further progress in that direction. During the voyage, an altitude of 7,000 feet was reached, which
was attained immediately before landing, the descent from that altitude being made in y]/2 minutes.
This trip showed conclusively that Philadelphia is favorably situated for starting with a balloon, for if the wind is blowing from any direction excepting the west, a fairly long voyage is possible. At present several members of the club are building a monster balloon, the Ben Franklin, which is to have a capacity of 92,000 cubic feet.
AEROMOBILES SOON TO BE ON THE MARKET.
The Vacu-Aerial Navigation and Manufacturing Co. of America has been for some time working on a machine which they believe to be about perfected. In an interview with Dr. A. Rudolph Silverston, the General Manager, he said:
"I expect to begin experimenting with a finished machine between the first and the fourth of July. If we do not have any breakdown we possibly will give a demonstration July fourth.
"There are only a few words that I can say at the present time regarding the machine, and they are more than we have said to anybody else. The principal part of our machine consists of a tubular body made entirely of aluminum, 25 feet long and 8 feet 3 inches in diameter. We have two sets of planes, each one 60 by 6 feet. Including the tubular body, we have a plane surface of nearly 1400 square feet. As far as indications now go, our weight will not exceed, including machinery and car, which is below the tubular body, 800 pounds. The horse-power is supplied by a Curtiss motor, and is the same motor used by Mr. Curtiss at Ormond Beach last January or February, which made the fastest mile ever travelled in the world, namely, a mile in 26 2-5 seconds, or 139 miles an hour. The motor is guaranteed to furnish 40 horsepower, but easily develops between 60 and 65. The upper plane surface on our machine insures a perfect maintenance, automatically, of equilibrium in both directions. As far as models have shown, we can rise almost instantly from the ground and descend with equal facility and safety. You will observe that we carry about Yz pound to the square foot of surface. We have employed nothing else but aluminum and steel, except for the wing surface, where we naturally used oiled Japanese silk. Comparing our machine, taking into consideration the horse-power, plane surface and weight, with the apparatus of the Wright Brothers and of Santos-Dumont, we should be able to carry from 2000 to 3000 pounds.
"We have absolute confidence in out-doing any machine so far put before the public and have no hesitancy in saying that we have in this production actually solved this vexing problem. From what we know from model flights, we can travel in any desired direction under any and all conditions in absolute safety, and in that regard, far superior to any automobile or steamboat. We are employing a number of patent devices to secure safety to the operator and passengers. I lay stress on passengers because if we have only a pretty toy, and are incapable of reducing this invention to a commercial basis why, then we quit. Our aim and intentions are centered entirely on a commercial solution. If this machine proves what we claim, we will at once engage in the actual manufacture of this machine, with many new devices attached, and we have gone so far already as to locate a very extensive and large plant near this city. [Milwaukee.—Ed.].
"Our president, Mr. William Woods Plankinton, is in thorough accord with my views and more sanguine than these few words express."
GORDON BENNETT INTERNATIONAL AERONAUTIC CUP RACE.
St. Louis, October 19, 1907. Official Entries.
Aero Club of France: 3 balloons. But two of the contestants, Rene Gasnier and Alfred Le Blanc, have thus far been named.
Aero Club of the United Kingdom; 3 balloons. Contestants not yet named, but Hon. Chas. S. Rools and Mr. Griffith Brewer are certain to be appointed.
Deutseher Luftschiffer-Verband: 3 balloons; "Pommern," of 2200 cubic metres capacity, "Todewils" of 1000 cubic metres capacity and the "Dusseldorf" of 2250 cubic metres capacity. The pilots are Herren Freiherr von Hewald, Hauptmann Hildebrandt and Hauptmann von Abereron, respectively.
J. C .McCOV. ALBERT B. LAMBERT,
Honorary Secretary Aero Club of St. Lcuis.
Real Aero Club de Espana: 2 balloons of 2200 cubic metres capacity each. Pilots, not named.
Aero Club of America: 3 balloons of 2200 cubic metres capacity each. Pilots, Lieutenant Frank P. Lahm, winner of the Gordon-Bennett Race of 1906, at Paris; J. C. McCoy, balloon "America," and Alan R. Ilawley, balloon "St. Louis." A. B. Lambert will be Mr. Hawley's Companion. The Soeieta Aeronautica Italiana entered two balloons: the "Vittoria," of 2200 cubic metres capacity, pilot Alfred Vonwiller, and the "Roma," of 2250 cubic metres, pilot Major M. Moris. The entry was not sent within the time limit under the rules (February 1, 1907) and the Federation Aeronnutique Internationale felt itself obliged to disallow the entry.
The official date of the race has been set for October 19, 1937, at Forest Park, St. Louis, Missouri, there being a full moon cn this date.
Gas will be pumped under pressure through a 24" main from a gasometre holding 4,000,000 cubic feet of coal gas.
A portion of the Park has been set aside for the start of this race, which will be enclosed and grand stands erected to accommodate the spectators.
In addition to the Gordon-Bennett Cup for which this race is run, there have been offered the following prizes:
$1000 to the contestant making second place, offered by Adolphus Busch.
$750 to the contestant making third place, offered by the United Street Railways Co.
$500 to the contestant making fourth place, offered by B. Nugent & Bro.
$250 to the contestant making fifth place, offered by the St. Louis Times.
At vSt. Louis, during the month of October, the prevailing winds are from the South and Southwest and have an average velocity of over 10 miles an hour. On account of the currents of air, it is predicted that no contestant will be able to make any great distance to the West, that probably all the balloons will sail away to the eastward. The average temperature for that month at St. Louis is 6o° P.
, AL,AN R. HAWKEY
LIEUT. FRANK P. UHM
Hon. Chas. S. Rolls has just been awarded the Silver Medal for the longest time spent in the air by any pilot of the French aero club during 1906. This award is made on his record of 26 hours 18 minutes in the balloon "Britannia" in last year's Gordon. Bennett. This is entirely different from the Gold Medal awarded him for longest duration in the Gordon-Bennett.
William Woods Plankinton, it is reported, has also purchased a balloon.
A new airship company is being formed by Wm. J. Brewer, of Trenton, N. J. The plans call for from two to four cigar shaped gas bags supporting an aluminum framework 35 feet long. A 40-horsepower engine will furnish the motive power.
THE AERO CLUB OF ST. LOUIS.
By J. W. Kearney, Secretary.
The Aero Club of St. Louis was formed the early part of this year and is the direct result of this city's having been selected as the place for holding the contest for the James Gordon Bennett International Aeronautic Cup.
Will en the officials of the Aero Club of America decided on St. Louis as a place for holding the race, it was suggested that an Aero Club be organized to take charge of the preliminaries and do whatever work was necessary in conjunction with the affair.
The Club was organized on January 7th with a Charter Membership of 37 of the leading citizens of the city. On January 29th a permanent organization was effected and the work of securing members was inaugurated. In ten days the limit of 300 was secured and it was
More than one hundred of the four hundred members of the Club are millionaires, and in the organization are to be found the representative men of St. Louis in all lines and professions. There are railroad presidents, bank and
LEWIS D. DOZIER, President, Aero Club of St. Louis.
later decided to increase the membership to 400. The additional 100 members came into the Club in a very short period and the Club now has a waiting list.
FRANCIS D. HIRSCHBERG, Treasurer Aero Club of St. Louis.
trust company presidents, merchant princes, the leading physicians, surgeons, and lawyers of the city and one Roman Catholic Archbishop.
The officers of the organization are:— L. D. Dozier, President; Former Governor D. R. Francis, D. C. Nugent and G. H. Walker, Vice-Presidents; F. D. Hirschberg, Treasurer; A. B. Lambert, Honorary Secretary; J. W. Kearney, Secretary.
The Ascension Grounds selected are in the east end of Forest Park, which is one of the largest parks in the world. Immediately opposite the park and directly facing the Ascension Grounds, the Club has leased a dwelling for a Club House. A Gasometer is but a few blocks away, and it is from this tank that the balloons will be supplied with gas at the time of the International race.
In conjunction with the James Gordon Bennett contest, which is for ordinary balloons, the Aero Club of St Louis.has decided to hold competitions for Dirigible Balloons and Aeroplanes. These events will be held on or about October 22nd or very close to the date of the James Gordon Bennett race.
For these competitions, the Aero Club of St. Louis has offered prizes
j. w. KEARNEY, Secretary, Aero Club of St. I^ouis.
"Germany is a nation which is second to none in the production of a special form of genius possessing an aptitude for one-sided exaggeration. If a particular combination of circumstances can produce a dangerous situation, there always seems to be someone ready to exploit that as the one and only point of view from which to observe the subject in question. As an example, there is the supposed danger which would accrue to Great Britain through the possession by other powers of immense aerial fleets, and the possibilities of which have been set forth by Regierungsrat Rudolf Martin—with a foresight which is not altogether original—in a book entitled "The Era of Aerial Navigation."
amounting to $5000. There is to be one Grand Prize of $2500 for the Dirigible Balloon or Machine of any kind which makes the best showing in the contest, provided it makes the 6-mile course, turning two goals within 30 minutes. There is also to be a prize of $1250 for the Dirigible Balloon which makes the best showing and a similar prize for the Aeroplane or any other style of machine which gives the best account of itself in the competition.
The winner of the Grand Prize is not to be allowed to compete in either of the two latter events.
In case the Grand Prize of $2500 is not won by any of the competitors, the money is to be divided equally between the Dirigible Balloons and the Aeroplanes or other style vehicles,, each class getting $1250. This will be split up into Second, Third and Fourth Prizes as follows :—Second Price, $625 ; Third Prize, $400; Fourth Prize, $225. The First Prize in each class will remain at $1250.
It is the intention to make the James. Gordon Bennett Cup Contest of St. Louis the occasion of a General Aeronautic Carnival, hence the events arranged by the St. Louis Club. The Club has secured pledges from the leading hotels in this city not to raise rates during the Aeronautic events, and it is more than likely that railroads will be induced to make special rates for the affair. Much interest is being taken in St. Louis in the matter, and it is believed there will be an enormous crowd in the city when the contests take place.
"One of the chapters, and perhaps the one which will be of most interest to Britishers, is that headed "England no longer an Island," in which the author allows his imagination some freedom of flight as to an invasion of this land by Germany. At the present stage of aeronautics such phantasies, even if presented in a well balanced form, are apt to be a little ridiculous. That the author should have entirely-overlooked any inconveniences or difficulties which the occupants of the various individual ships might experience of effecting a landing is a comparatively small matter, but we frankly fail to see that any useful purpose could be served by such a book, unless the author hopes to inspire our own military authorities with an even keener desire to keep in touch with aerial development than they already possess."—Automotor Journal.
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS
PROGRESS IN AERONAUTICS.
For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see,
Saw the vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be;
Saw the heavens fill with commerce, argosies of magic sails,
Pilots of the purple twilight, dropping down with costly bales;
Heard the heavens fdl with shouting, and there rained a ghastly dew
From the nations' airy navies, grappling in the central blue;
Far along the world-wide whisper of the south wind rushing warm.
With the standards of the people plunging thro' the thunderstorm.
At no time in the history of aeronautics has the year opened as aus-piciousl}-. The problem of aerial navigation by a heavier than air machine has practically been solved. There remains now the development of the machine to a general commercial use.
In March, 1906, the Aero Club of America officially announced that the Wright Brothers had positively done what no other human beings had ever before accomplished. This announcement was made only after obtaining positive proof, and was so startling that even now the majority of the aeronautically interested abroad do not accept the authoritative statement of the Aero Club of America. America has the honor of being the first to "successfully" navigate the air.
What the Wright Brothers have actually accomplished follows:
Sept. 26, 1905—Distance, 17,961 meters (11% miles); time, 18 min. 9 sec: cause of stopping, exhaustion of fuel.
Sept. 29, 1905—Distance, 19.570 meters (12 miles); time, 19 min. 55 sec; cause of stopping, exhaustion of fuel.
Sept. 30, 1905—Time, 17 min. 15 sec; cause of stopping, hot bearing.
Oct. 3, 1905—Distance, 24,535 meters (i5j4 miles); time, 25 min. 5 sec; cause of stopping, hot bearing.
Oct. 4, 1905—Distance, 33,456 meters (20^ miles); time, 33 min. 17 sec; cause of stopping, hot bearing.
Oct. 5, 1905—Distance, 38,956 meters (24 1-5 miles); time, 38 min. 3 sec; cause of stopping, exhaustion of fuel.
"It will be seen that an average speed of a little more than 38 miles an hour was maintained in the last flight. All of the flights were made over a circular course of about three-fourths of a mile to the lap, which reduced the speed somewhat. The machine increased its velocity on the straight parts of the course and slowed down on the curves. It is believed that in straight flight the normal speed is more than 40 miles an hour. In the earlier of the flights named above less than 6 pounds of gasoline was carried. In the later ones a tank was fitted large enough to hold fuel for an hour, but by oversight it was not completely filled before the flight of October 5.
"In the past three years a total of 160 flights have been made with our motor-driven flyers, and a total distance of almost exactly 160 miles covered, an average of a mile to each flight, but until the machine had received its final improvements the flights were mostly short, as is evidenced by the fact that the flight of October 5th was longer than the 105 flights of the year 1904 together.
"The lengths of the flights were measured by a Richard anemometer which was attached to the machine. The records were found to agree closely with the distances measured over *thc ground when the flights were made in calm air over a straight course; but when the flights were made in circles a close comparison was impossible because it was not practicable to accurately trace the
course over the ground. In the flight of October 5th a total of 29.7 circuits of the held was made. The times were taken with stop-watches. In operating the machine it has been our custom for many years to alternate in making flights, and such care has been observed that neither of us has suffered any serious injury, though in the earlier flights our ignorance and the inadequacy of the means of control made the work exceedingly dangerous.
"The 1905 flyer had a total weight of about 925 pounds, including the operator, and was of such substantial construction as to be able to make landings at high speed without being strained or broken. From the beginning the prime object was to devise a machine of practical utility, rather than a useless and extravagant toy. For this reason extreme lightness of construction has always been resolutely rejected. On the other hand, every effort has been made to increase the scientific efficiency of the wings and screws in order that even heavily built machines may be carried with a moderate expenditure of power. The favorable results which have been obtained have been due to improvements in flying quality resulting from more scientific design and to improved methods of balancing and steering. The motor and machinery possess no extraordinary qualities. The best dividends on the labor invested have invariably come from seeking more knowledge rather than more power."
(Signed) Orvillk Wright,
In September, 1906, M. Santos Du-mont, who has built several more or less successful dirigible balloons, made a flight of about 25 yards with a motor driven aeroplane having the following characteristics:
General Dimensions.—Length, 32 ft.; greatest width, 39 ft.; weight with one passenger, 465 lb.; lift per square ft. 5 lb.; lift per 1 H. P., 19.4 lb., at a velocity of about 30 miles per hour.
Sustainers.—Two box type wings, each 18 ft. by 11 ft.; surfaces 7 ft. apart, sustaining area 861 sq. ft.
Suspension.—The long protruding girder which carries the car is fixed at one end to the sustainers; at the other end a box shaped rudder is fitted.
Car.—A willow basket fixed in the girder above mentioned.
Propulsion.—Aluminum two bladed propeller, 6 ft. in diameter, fixed in rear of the sustainers.
Steering in a vertical plane.—The rudder can be 'moved right or left, by means of a steering wheel.
Steering in a horizontal plane.— The same rudder can be moved up and down by means of a steering lever, and the whole machine rises and falls accordingly.
Equilibrium.—No special apparatus. The machine fell to the ground and was seriously damaged. In October he again tried and succeeded in travelling a distance of about 195 feet through the air after having run along the ground for a distance of 243 feet.
A third trial was made on November 12th, in which he maintained a uniform flight for about 720 feet at a speed of 25 miles an hour. This won for him two prizes, one of 100 francs for the first aeroplane to fly 195 feet, and one of 1500 francs for the first to go at least 325 feet without touching the earth. He failed to win however the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize of 50,000 francs for the first aeroplane which will fly from a given point a distance of 5-16 of a mile, and return to starting point. In the spring of 1907 he made an unsuccessful trial with a new machine.
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS 25 ____i.
Denmark has made a name for itself by the accomplishment of Herr Ellehommer, who, in January, 1906, Hew a distance of 162 feet against the wind. The motor was then stopped and an easy descent made. The machine was of the "Wright t}rpe."
The work of the Wrights, Herring, and Chanute in America, Santos Uumoiit in France and Ellehommer in Denmark has added numbers to the heavier than air school, as is proven by the multitude of experimenters along this line.
Bellamy is working on an aeroplane at Weybridge, England, with which to compete for the Daily Mail and other prizes. This machine has a bamboo structure carrying a double decked aeroplane at each end. The front planes are 32J/2 by 9 feet. The rear planes measure 22^ by 9 feet. Both front and rear planes are placed Z-lA Ieet apart. Lying lengthwise between them are two triangular side sails inclined up and out. The upper and lower planes are divided vertically into cells. The machine is driven upward by a horizontal plane and steered horizontally by a vertical rudder placed in the rear. A 50 H. P. Panhard motor in the center of the forward plane supplies power by chains to fans.
Clarke is experimenting at Alder-shot along the line of the Wrights. His machine is similar, with the following exceptions: "At the rear, the Wright aeroplane had a single vertical plane acting as a rudder, but the Clarke device consists of two vertical planes, which are traversed about a third of their length from the top by a single horizontal plane. The main surfaces are curved on the principle of a bird's wing, and the aeronaut takes a recumbent position on the center of the lower aerocurve. Used as a kite, very satisfactory experiments have been made with this ■aeroplane."
M. Cornu constructed a model which, during trials, rose in the air "most satisfactorily and maintained a steady course." The weight was 30J/2 lbs. and the power used, 1^4 horse. He is now building a large machine, fitted with a 25 H. P. motor.
The Antoinette engine people are building a machine on the designs of Capt. Ferber and M. Levavasseur, using a Levavasseur motor.
Capt. Ferber has also completed two machines of 24 and 100 H. P. respectively.
Vuia has a machine which comprises "a pair of enormous wings with a motor driven propeller. It runs on a light quadricycle frame, which the propeller has proved itself able to drive at a considerable speed and even uphill."
Very satisfactory results have been obtained by Paul Barlatier and M. Blanc, with a single aerocurve model, having a complicated tail some distance behind. A 2 H. P. Bucket motor drives two propellers in front. It is said the inventors are building a larger machine, to be equipped with a 12 H. P. motor.
Esnault Pelterie is experimenting with an aeroplane attached to an automobile. At a speed of 56 miles an hour the machine developed a lifting power of 99 pounds.
Albert Bazin has a curious machine with wings, a tail, and a hull for the driver. He uses a liquid carbonic acid motor to drive a two bladed pro, peller 7 feet in diameter.
On April 8, 1907 the Delagrange ; Aeroplane made a fairly successful flight, though damaged in landing. The wind aided the descent of the machine when the motor was stopped. The distance covered was 164 feet. In a previous flight, however, he covered 196 feet.
M. Bleriot has developed a bird-like machine, having an elongated
body, two large outspread wings with the tips turned upwards, and two vertical rudders. The two wing surfaces form a single plane. It is fitted with a 24 H. P. Antoinette engine, having a propeller 5J4 feet in diameter. The machine flew about 20 feet on the first trial. It was found that 16 H. P. would raise the machine from the ground. A gust of wind upset the machine on the second trial.
The French Government now has two dirigible balloons, the old "Le-baudy'' and the new "La Patrie." The latter has made some very successful flights, in good time against a wind of over 30 miles an hour.
Henry de la Vaidx built, in 1906, a navigable balloon, which has made several more or less encouraging flights.
Captain Kindelan designed for Spain a dirigible, t 15 feet long, with two very light 24 H. P. Levavasseur motors.
Henry Deutsch's enormous dirigible "La Ville de Paris," 205 feet long, with a 70 H. P. Motor, was first tried out in the Fall of 1906. The initial flight was a disastrous one. Only a short distance was traversed when the guide rope caught and in disentangling it the envelope was destroyed.
Count Zeppelin has achieved the greatest success in the lighter than air school. The results obtained by him, considering the general impracticability of dirigible balloons, is well nigh marvellous. Zeppelin has secured the co-operation of the German Government in his experiments. The Emperor and some wealthy associates have subscribed $250,000 for the conduct of these researches.
The English Government is experimenting with gliding machines under the direction of Colonel Templar, of the Military Ballooning and Aeronautical Department. Their gliders have two planes similar to the Wright
glider. After being lifted into the air with kites they are released. Mr. Cody, in one instance, made a glide of l/2 mile. The English War Office has under construction an airship, similar to the Lebaudy. Its lifting capacity will be over three tons.
The Russian Government has been working with aeroplanes for the past three years and the Chief of the Russian Balloon Corps claims that the "balancing problem has been solved by him, but he had not fitted any aeroplanes with motors."
Walter Wellman and Major Hersey are starting this year from Spitzbergen with their airship in an attempt to reach the North Pole. The ship is 196 feet long, 46 feet in diameter and has a capacity of 226,000 cubic feet. It has a lifting capacity of 22,000 pounds.
Patrick Y. Alexander writes that he will be over for the Gordon-Bennett Race at St. Louis, going from there to the Congress at Jamestown Exposition October 28th and 29th.
A. Leo Stevens has recently leased a building 197 x 120 feet at Hoboken, N. J., to be used as an addition to his balloon factory.
Col. Max C. Fleischmann, of Cincinnati, Ohio, has purchased from J. Hoddick, a balloon manufacturer of that city, an 85,000 cubic foot balloon.
Dr. Oliver L. Fassig, who has been the Director at Mount Weather since its establishment, is now Director of the Climatological Service of the Weather Bureau, Maryland and Delaware Section, at Baltimore. Dr. W. J. Humphreys is the new Director at Mt. Weather.
If ten balloon trips make an aeronautic pilot, is the man wdio has made trips by the hundreds a better pilot? Can America win this year's Gordon-Bennett ?
Alan R. Hawley's balloon which is to represent St. Louis in the International race, is now finished. Mr. Hawley made his first flight in it from Paris June 14.
AERO CLUB OF AMERICA.
The regular Monday evening lectures have been discontinued for the Summer. Great interest 'has been taken in these informal affairs and an effort will be made in the Fall to make those proposed even more successful, if possible. Following is a list of the subjects treated since the inauguration of the idea.
Israel Ludlow— "Equilibrium."
W. R. Kimball—
"Elementary Principles of Heavier-Than-Air Machines."
T. T. Lovelace—
"Earthquake at Kingston," Illustrated.
Carl Fischer— "Pigeon Flying."
A. M. Herring—
"Aerial Propellers and Light Metals."
Carl Dienstbach— "Propellers."
W. R.- Kimball—
Demonstration of His Helicoptere Model.
AVm. J. Hammer— "Illuminated Dust."
Harry E. Dey— "Light Motors."
C, H. Taylor—
From time to time there are opportunities for club members who do not own balloons to make ascents. It would be advisable for those wishing to make trips to place their names on fde with the Secretary in order that they may be communicated with when such occasions arise.
The Club has now arranged that its rooms are open to members every day and evening throughout the entire week. All foreign aeronautical magazines are kept on fde and much interesting reading will be found in the library, to which is constantly being added both new and rare books on aeronautics.
Word has been received by the Aero Club of America, that the Aero Club of Spain will have but two balloons in the Gordon-Bennett race, instead of three as originally entered.
IS THERE AT ANY TIME DURING THE FLIGHT OF A DIRIGIBLE BALLOON A GREATER AIR PRESSURE AT ANY OTHER POINT THAN AT THE THEORETICAL "NOSE?"
Consider a course from one point to another with the wind blowing at an angle with the line drawn between the starting and finishing points.
To gain the objective point the dirigible must be headed to the windward of the objective point. The theoretical angle of direction can be determined by compounding the speed and direction of the wind and the speed and direction of the airship. If the direction of the wind is across or opposed to the direction of travel, a greater distance, with relation to the air, must be traveled and it is self-evident that there would be increased fuel consumption.
Theoretically, the machine would head directly into the relative wind if the natural wind were uniform. However, the wind is not stable—it consists of a succession of gusts.
There is increased pressure on the windward side during the momentary increase in the speed of the wind. There is also an unbalanced excess of pressure on the lee side during a lull in the wind. These changes cause the airship to assume a twisting movement which is further complicated by the gyroscopic action of the screw and the gyrostatic action of the air-stream flowing in a curved path along the "nose" of the bag, the combination of all the forces producing a sort of "corkscrew" pitching of the balloon which increases in violence with the increase in speed of the wind as well as with increase in speed of the screw.
AMERICAN MAGAZINE OF AERONAUTICS
Ernest LaRue Jones, Editor
Published monthly by
American Magazine of Aeronautics Co.
142 West 65th St., New York, U. S. A.
VOI,. I. JULY, 1907. No. i.
American Magazine of Aeronautics is issued promptly on the first of each month. It aims to furnish the latest and most authoritative information 011 all matters relating to Aeronautics. Contributions are solicited.
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A LETTER TO AERONAUTS.
The American Magazine of Aeronautics is very desirous of obtaining accurate and complete records of all balloon and airship flights made in America during each month.
We would appreciate it very much if you would send us such records at the end of every month and we would be very glad to supply you with the blank forms for the purpose upon request.
May we not expect to hear from you?
American Magazine of Aeronautics.
(Without Gas Bag).
It is of the utmost importance that a cash prize of a considerable amount be hung up to encourage and reward the successful work of the hundreds of aeronautical inventors in this country.
As it is now, there are many claiming that they have a practical flying machine. There is an almost insurmountable difficulty encountered by these inventors in bringing their machine to the attention of capitalists. After they have completed their work they find that it has all been in vain— they either cannot enlist capital or come to the conclusion that a flying machine is of no value for business purposes or for sport. Many see no future for a machine and do not put their ideas into any concrete shape.
Here is an instance of the present difficulty. A certain man claims most positively he has a machine that will lift into the air double its own weight. He still has to arrange for steering mechanism and means for propulsion. He does not wish to use any more of his own money nor that of his friends until he can see a return for the money invested in the event of bringing the machine to a successful completion. If there were a cash prize of $25,000 available, he would at once procure the necessary funds and complete his machine. He is willing to take his chances on the machine's not fulfilling the conditions. He merely wants something to work for, something that will repay him for the time and money expended.
The prize should be at least $25,000. There are several prizes of $50,000 offered abroad. The money should be available to the successful contestant immediately upon his fulfilling the conditions under which the prize is contested—say, the flight out and back over a mile course, with provisions in the rules for turning, ascending and descending, &c, to prove the machine's absolute dirigibility.
This method would eliminate the many impossible machines now built or projected. It would provide a suitable reward to the successful man. There would then be no trouble in finding a market for the machine.
AERONAUTICS IN ENGLAND. By Major B. Baden Powell.
I feel somewhat in the position of that well-known author who, in writing a book on the natural history of Ireland, had a chapter on "snakes," but which consisted solely of the sentence, "There are no snakes in Ireland." But the present subject is rather different, for, while unable to say much about it, I have reason to believe that a good deal is being done in England in the construction of apparatus for navigating the air. I have heard rumors of at least five inventors at work on large machines, but each of them is trying to keep the matter dark, and, therefore, what few facts I have gleaned must be kept to myself for the present. On a future occasion, however, I shall hope to be able to send some description of them. So much, then, as regards flying machines, or that system known in France as the "heavier-than-air" type. This term, it seems to me, is not a happy one. Many machines have been suggested and even tried, to-wit, the latest of M. Santos-Dumont's, which are heavier than the air they displace, and yet which include a large gas balloon. I suggest as simpler and more explanatory the term "gasless" for those machines which rise in the air solely by the aid of propelling machinery.
Gas-filled airships are not much in favor in England, and there is probably not a specimen, in working order, to be found in the country.
Ballooning, pure and simple, forms a different subject and is one in which great strides have been made of late. The strides, however, have been rather in the number of ascents and in the increase of amateur aeronauts than in any technical improvements in the apparatus or methods. "Balloon parties" at country houses have become the rage (in a very limited sphere, I admit). I was staying lately with a friend, where there were ten guests, and three balloons went up, taking all the house party. Then we have had some interesting contests. The "Harbord Cup," presented by the H'on. Airs. Assheton Harbord, drew ten balloons to the starting point at Ranelagh (near London). A point, Goring railway station, was decided upon by the Committee just before the start, as winning post. This was over 40 miles distant, yet three out of the ten starters managed to descend within a few hundred yards of the point selected. A contest which is likely to prove still more interesting, is the "Hedges Butler" cup, which is to be competed for on June 20. This prize is to be awarded to the owner of the balloon which makes the longest voyage on that day. But we in England are so very dependent on climatic conditions that it becomes very doubtful if the race will be a success. Not only is it as likely as not to be blowing strongly, but our prevailing winds, westerly and southwesterly, soon carry one from London to the North Sea and a run of 60 to 70 miles is the most that can then be hoped for.
A. M. OF A.'S GERMAN CORRESPONDENT.
Dr. Hermann Stade, Member of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Germany and Secretary of the Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband, will contribute a monthly article to this magazine. In the August issue Dr. Stade will write upon the "Status of the Aeronautical Science in Germany."
WINGS MORE EFFICIENT THAN SCREWS.
Several special claims are made by Mr. John Spies for the airship wings be has designed. He has been experimenting for over forty years, and he thus expounds the fundamental principles which have guided him in all his experiments:—"That a successful airship must be 'heavier than air' was one, that the machine must be 'rigid' was another, and that it must be in a condition to rise from the ground by its own power was the third. As my teachers in all these endeavors, I consulted birds in their actions and constructions. Not only birds, but other living creatures also came into my observations. None of them could 'fly' without their wings, and it became firmly settled in my mind that in wings was contained the mystery and solution of flying.
"To make such as would elevate and propel was the great object of all my experiments. I have made uncounted numbers of wings, singles and pairs, of all shapes and sizes. It was an easy matter to get such as would elevate, but to make them also propelling devices was something that puzzled and baffled me over and over again. Often I was near losing hope of ever getting to that point, but still kept on, and at last success crowned my perseverance.
"I can now show to any interested person wings that will do exactly what those of a bird perform. They will with every stroke, up or down, elevate and propel, but, in reality, the downstroke is the lifting and the upstroke the propelling one, the latter with great force. Actual experiments with a s H. P. gasoline motor, the wings measuring ul/2 ft. in length by 7 ft. across at their widest part, made in five sections, gave proof positive that they will lift 100 lb. and
more, and I know now that in the use of wings is contained the solution of the great problem of aerial navigation.
"A pair of wings properly constructed and driven by a 10 H. P. motor have greater propelling force than a screw propeller driven by a 50 H. P. motor. Of all these points I have proof, and will now go before the public to demonstrate the truth of assertions."
The model wings illustrated are 10 ft. long, lightly 'constructed of cane and silk, and were attached to a 5 H. P. motor weighing, with tank, 100 lb. The result, according to Mr. Spies, was that with each downstroke the whole affair was lifted 6 to 8 in. from the ground, thereby demonstrating the lifting capacity of wings of this description. In the upstroke, he declares, four men holding on to the frame felt a distinct strain of forward movement. This, in itself, demonstrates, he maintains, the possibility of their driving an airship in any direction desired.
LONG DISTANCE BALLOON RECORDS.
183(3—Longest journey starting from England by balloon. Made by Green, Halland and Mason, who crossed to Nassau, 500 miles. Time, 18 hours.
1859—Longest trip in America. Made by John Wise, who travelled from St. Louis to Henderson, N. Y., 1,150 miles. Time, 19 2-3 hours. This was his four hundred and sixty-first voyage.
1870—During the siege of Paris an aeronaut reached Norway, 1,000 miles. Time, 15 hours.
1900—Henry de la Vaulx barely made the world's record, held up to this time by John Wise, by travelling from Paris to the Russian border, 1,200 miles. Time, 35M hours.
1906—Two German aeronauts hold the record of 52 hours in the air.
SCHOOLS OF INSTRUCTION IN AERONAUTICS ESTABLISHED IN GERMANY AND FRANCE.
On Ma}r 1, 1907, a school was opened at Chemnitz for theoretical and practical training in the construction and management of airships. The director. Herr Paul Spiegel, is a man of exceptional ability and of broad experience in every phase of balloon construction and management. He has made over 600 ascents. The tuition for a year's course has been fixed at $149, payable in monthly instalments. Examination will be held at the close of the course, April 30, and certificates of proficiency will be given the graduates. The training will be confined almost exclusively to the field of balloon construction and operation.
In France there is no actual "school" for training aeronauts in which a definite course is pursued. Such practice and instruction in aerostation as is offered is provided by the clubs and by the Government in connection with the military service. In Paris there are four important aeronautical societies or ballooning clubs, and five similar organizations elsewhere in France. These clubs were created for the promotion and practice of ballooning as a sport as well as for scientific study and experiment. In some of these young men are given practical training, taught the theory and construction and use of balloons, their proper care and navigation.
If the students acquire a certain proficiency and pass a prescribed examination, the}' are permitted, when drawn for military service, to enter the Rataillon d'Aerostiers, established in the old zoological garden located between Versailles and St. Cyr. The post is under the control of a commandant and the men arc taught and practice the handling and care of the
Government balloons, of which there arc several of a capacity of less than 900 cubic metres.
The second and more important institution of this kind in France is known as the "Establishment Central du Materiel de l'Aerostation Militaire," at Chalais-Meudon, midway between Paris and Versailles. It has been in existence nearly a hundred years, and is divided into two general departments-—the factory where the balloons and equipment are made and the department of tests and experiments. There is no definite course of instruction. It was there that Colonel Renard twenty-three years ago built and experimented with "La France." the first dirigible balloon.
AERONAUTIQUE CLUB DE FRANCE.
By Monsieur J. Sauniere, President.
The Exhibition of small model aeroplanes, which took place under the auspices of the Section d'Aviation of the Aeronautique Club de France on June 9th at the Galerie des Machines, brought together sixteen competitors with twenty exhibits entered, of which fifteen apparati were actually presented by the following: Messrs. Par-tiot, Budin, Paulhan, Audiguey, Des-cognier, Fourgeaud, Ballandier, Bu-guiere, Henry, Razet and Queffeleant.
The best flights were obtained by the Langley type aeroplanes of Messrs. Budin and Paulhan. The jury, which was composed of Messrs. Archdeacon, Captain Ferber and G. Voisin, awarded them two First Prizes, silver medals, the apparati being similar. Bronze medals were awarded to Messrs. Audiguey and Buguet for the mechanical work on their models.
We can announce another trial in the near future, for which M. Archdeacon has offered a prize.
The Directors of the Aeronautique Club de France after having admitted twenty-one members, confirmed the decision of the Sports Committee relative to the contest of the 26th of May, awarding First Prize to M. Lassagne, Second Prize to M. Cormier and Third Prize to M. Vernanchet.
It has been decided to put gas at the disposal of members at the price of 130 francs per 1,000 cubic meters and to grant subsidies to pilots representing the A. C. D. F. in national and international races.
The Section d'Aviation is making plans for the organization of a great international contest for small model aeroplanes, with and without motors, for which numerous prizes will be offered.
A visit to the balloon factory oi Mr. Stevens the other day was rather surprising. No less than eleven balloons were found, either completed or in course of construction. One of 80,000 cubic feet capacity is for the United States Government. Mr. J. C. McCoy, one of the representatives of America in the Gordon-Bennett Race this year, is having one built of 36,000 cubic feet. Another of 60,000 cubic feet goes to a Mr. Baxter, in Florida. Still another goes to far-off Johannesburg, South Africa. Mr. Elmer Van Ranken, of Gloversville, N. Y., is having an airship built which will contain 9,500 cubic feet of hydrogen. Two captive balloons have gone to an enterprising couple of young men at Norfolk, who are operating in a park of their own just outside the Jamestown Exposition. The other purchasers are: Oscar ilendler, James II. Hare, Joseph Cali and William Thaller.
The Aero Club of Belgium will hold an international balloon contest for distance on September 15th, at Brussels. Entries are invited, and prospective contestants are asked to get their applications in as soon as possible.
Dr. Julian P. Thomas has practically completed the alterations which he has been making to the dirigible balloon which he purchased from Major C. J. S. Miller last year. The envelope has been lengthened considerably, and an
entirely new frame work has been constructed.
Prof. Otto Luyties, an engineer who was associated with Prof. Wood of John Hopkins University in his aeronautical experiments, tested out his flying machine on June 15th, but met with a slight accident. In being pulled along by an automobile, the machine fell with such force as to 'smash the front .wheel supporting the framework and the propeller.
Percy F. Megargle and George T. Tomlinson are planning to construct an airship with which to make flights at the Jamestown Exposition. Mr. Tomlinson announces his intention of beating Lieutenant Lahm's record of 402 miles.
Some idea of the interest in this country in the dirigible balloon may be gained from the fact that, in addition to a number of balloons, seven airships are in course of construction at the "balloon farm" of Mr. Carl E. Myers.
The illustration is that of the "King-Fisher," the invention of Mr. Jacob Fisher, of Columbus, O. The envelope is 74 feet long, 22 feet in diameter and contains 14,000 cubic feet of hydrogen, the lifting capacity being 900 pounds. The propeller blades are adjustable to various angles and are driven by two light motors whose fly-wheels act as friction discs to drive the propeller fast or slow. Situated on either side of the car are two other screws having blades that furl at any desired portion of a revolution and open to drive the ship up or down, forward or backward, to right or left, as may be desired, and at varying speeds. It is claimed that this airship has remarkable equipoise.
It is intended to publish in each number a description of the various light motors now on the market which are adapted for use in dirigible balloons and heavier-than-air machines-
The G. H. Curtiss Manufacturing Co., Hammondsport, X. Y., foresaw the approaching demand for light and powerful motors and two years ago began to devote a great deal of attention and study to this type of engine.
Having already developed their cycle motors to a high degree of efficiency, they began to experiment with multi-cylinder engines until they brought their present line of engines to the same high standard^
These motors range from i to 8 cylinder and from 3 to 100 H. P. They have found that the most practical design of motor for aeronautical work is the S-cylinder, the cylinders being set at an angle of 90 degrees. The power from such an engine is constant, each explosion stroke commencing when the preceding one is but half over.
A Cuitiss Kighl-2ylinder Motor.
A 100 11. P. motor now being built will weigh less than 3 pounds to the horsepower. The hollow crank shafts are made of chrome nickel steel. All bearings are ground to size and the boxings are made of a special alloy which is very light and at the same
time extremely strong and durable The cylinders, pistons and rings are ground to size and are interchangeable. All bolts and studs are made of a special grade of nickel steel,
while the aluminum crank case is also made of a special alloy. The
ignition is effected by the use of a single jump spark coil and a distributor attached to the commutator. This system is so efficient that only four small dry cells are necessary. The lubrication is by the splash system with two sight feed oilers supplying oil constantly to the case from which compression is relieved through the hollow shaft.
Corporal Edward Ward and Private Joseph E. Barrett have been assigned by the Commander at Fort Wood to the balloon workshop of A. Leo Stevens to study the various processes in the manufacture of the balloons.
Russell E. Gardner, a member of the Aero Club of St. Louis, has recently purchased from Campbell & Honeywell the old balloon "Mars" and has rechristened it at a recent ascent the "St. Louis."
The Real Aero Club de Espana has ordered three balloons from Surcorf for this year's Gordon-Bennett.
CHRONOLOGY OF RECENT EVENTS
May 20. First race of the season for the Aero Club of France, in which fourteen balloons started.
May 24. Walter Welhnan leaves London for Spitzbergen. The start for the pole will be made between July 20 and August 10.
May 25. Ten balloons race from Ranelagh for the Harbord Cup, awarded to the competitor descending nearest to a predetermined spot. Won by Mr. Frank H. Butler in his balloon "Dolce Far Niente," making a landing within 100 yards from the mark.
May 30. Lincoln Beaehey makes a long flight in his dirigible, near Boston, Mass.
May 19. Balloon race at Mannheim. Nine balloons started for H. R. H., the Grand Duke of Baden's cup and other prizes. Won by Capt. H. Von Abercron, landing after a trip of 263 miles, in France.
June 2. A military balloon in charge of Captain Olivelli is struck by lightning at an elevation of 1300 feet, during an ascent at Rome and set on fire, resulting in the death of the aeronaut. This is the first balloon on record to have been struck by lightning. The cause is ascribed to its coating of metallic paint.
June 2. Ten balloons make ascents at Barcelona, Spain.
June 2. Dr. Alexander Graham Bell arrives in Halifax to begin work on his tetrahedral kite, which is to be equipped with a 15-horsepower motor weighing 120 pounds.
June 6. Beachey flies his airship at Boston. Owing to engine trouble the balloon was carried over the harbor. Repairs to the engine, while drifting with the wind, enabled the pilot to regain shore in safety.
June 7. Eugene Goudet makes a flight in his dirigible at Jamestown Exposition. Owing to some trouble the balloon dived into the waters of Hampton Roads, striking the warship "Alabama," whose sailors rescued the aeronaut.
June 7. Dowager Queen Margherita, of Italy, offers a cup for the successful balloon passage of the Alps.
June 8. A. Roy Knabenshue makes an ascent in his dirigible at Hartford, Conn. At the height of 1000 feet over a river, the gas suddenly condensed, bringing the ship down with great rapidity. Knabenshue disappeared beneath the water, but succeeded in disentangling himself. The ship was badly damaged.
June 8. Santos-Dumont attempts flight with his combination dirigible balloon and aeroplane. In starting, the propeller struck the ground and the balloon collapsed.
June 9. Dedication at Jamestown Exposition of the first building at any exposition in the history of the world devoted exclusively to the aerial branch of transportation.
June 12. Nine balloons race from St. Cloud.
June 20. Leon Beachey made a very successful flight in his airship at South Beach, Staten Island. Various maneouvres were executed and a gentle landing made at the conclusion of the trial. The ship has but a 10 horsepower engine, which is to be regretted.
June 25. Lincoln Beachey in his airship makes a trip of eighteen miles measured in a straight line, from South Beach, over New York Bay to Hell Gate, landing once in Battery Park at the lower end of Manhattan Island. The crowd damaged his propeller in making this stop, but after hurried repairs the trip resumed, passing over the sky-scrapers of Lower New York and up the Island. The broken propeller began to give trouble and the aeronaut shut off the engine and allowed the balloon to drift, with intention of making a final landing on Ward's Island. A sudden gust of wind seized the little bag when over Hell Gate and whirled it into the water, the envelope striking a buoy and being torn. Difficulty was encountered after leaving Battery Park. There was considerable wind pressure on the side of the envelope which blew the ship to the eastward, despite the work of the motor. The envelope has a capacity of 6500 cubic feet and the motor is 10 horse power. The entire ship weighs but 250 pounds.
June 27. Captain Thomas S. Baldwin makes the first flight in his new airship "Twentieth Century" at Hammonds-port in the presence of War Department officials. The trip lasted thirty minutes and was most successful. The envelope measures 52 feet in length and 17 feet in diameter and contains 9000 cubic feet of hydrogen. A 16 horse-power Curtiss motor drives the two screw propellers. Captain Baldwin will make an ascent in August for the Aero Club of America.
NEW AERONAUTIC BOOK.
The Aero Club of America has published an exceedingly interesting book, in which technical papers appear side by side with accounts of famous balloon trips and prophesies for the future.
Among the contributors of scientific articles are, the Messrs. Wright, A. M. Herring, Octave Chanute, Prof. W. H. Pickering, Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, Dr. Oliver L. Fassig and Prof. David Todd.
To those who have forgotten events a half century ago, Prof. Lowe's story of his balloon trip from Cincinnati, Ohio, to Unionville, South Carolina, during the Civil War, will prove of exceptional interest. Lieutenant Lahm writes the story of his famous flight from Paris to Scotland in last year's Gordon-Bennett Race.
The book contains twenty-three chapters, in addition to a preface and introduction. Sixty-five illustrations add considerable to its attractiveness.
Each member of the Club is entitled to a copy of this book free of charge through a special arrangement with the publishers, Doubleday-Page & Co.
Credit must be given to Messrs. Post, Hammer and Ludlow for their labors in making the book an accomplished fact.
RARE AERONAUTIC BOOKS FOR SALE
This magazine will publish each month a list of such rare books relating to aeronautics as it is able to secure.
If you desire any of those listed, kindly send check with your order for the amount stated. Should the book ordered be sold previous to the receipt of your order, the money will be promptly returned.
Astra Castra (Hatton Turner). Royal 4to, cloth, gilt top, uncut, London, 1865............$15.00
By Land and Sky (John M. Bacon). Four illustrations. 8vo, cloth, uncut, London, 1901$ 2.50
A Balloon Ascension at Midnight (G. E. Hall). Plates by Gordon Ross. Svo, boards, uncut. San Francisco, 1902. Limited edition .................. 2.50
An Account of the First Aerial Voyage in England (Vincent Lunardi). Portrait of Lunardi by Bartolozzi and plates. Crown Svo, half calf, uncut, London, 1784. Autograph "V.
Lunardi" on fly-leaf......... 15.00
Travels in Space (G. S. Valentine and F. L. Tomlinson). Introduction by Sir Hiram Maxim, 61 plates. Svo, cloth, London, 1902............... 2.00
My Airships (Santos-Dumont). Illustrated. Crown Svo, cloth, uncut, London, 1904......... 2.50
Proceedings of the International Conference on Aerial Navigation, Chicago, August 1-4, 1893. Plates, Svo, cloth, New York, 1S94 ................. 2.50
La Machine Animale (J. Marey). Illustrated, Svo, cloth, Paris, 1S78, French ................ 1.25
Experiments in Aerodynamics
(S. P. Langley). Illustrated,
4to, cloth, Washington, 1891.. 2.00
Five Weeks in a Balloon (Wm. Lackland). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1S69.....ϖ................ 2.50
Balloons, Airships and Flying Machines (Gertrude Bacon). 12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1905 .... 1.00
Balloon Travels (Robert Merry).
12 mo., cloth, N. Y., 1S65 .... 2.50
Conquest of the Air (John Alexander). 12 mo., cloth, London,
Wonderful Balloon Ascents (F.
Marion). 12 mo., half leather,
N. Y., 1871.................. 2.50
Travels in the Air (James Glai-
sher). 8vo., cloth, Phila., 1871. 7.50
Crotchets in the Air (John Poole). 12 mo., cloth, London, 1S38 ......................... 5-00
The Motor and its Chief Application, Wings, Propulsion in Air, etc. (Com. of Pat., 1849). Svo., paper .................. 1.50
PRIEST INVENTOR OF NOVEL AIR-SHIP.
The REVEREND DR. JOSEPH AULINO, Knight of Honor, Author, Dr. of Divinity, Prof, of Latin and Greek, in the Italian Universities for eighteen years, contends that universal peace is an established institution by reason of his novel invention. He claims that the force of wind will draw the balloon into it. The Reverend is with-holding details until his patent rights are fully protected in all of the countries of the world. After twenty years of study and experimenting he has at last perfected an airship which he claims is the sole solution of the Aerial Navigation problem. His plan is to have the driving and steering apparatus attached to the gas-bag instead of the car structure but with full control of the machinery centered in the car. It is by the application of the power of recoil that the balloon is to be controlled. The harder the wind blows, the better the balloon can be guided by it.
A hundred thousand dollar corporation has been formed for the manufacturing of the Reverend's device, at the head of which corporation Reverend Dr. Joseph Aulino takes place.
The classification of the stock is exclusively common. A demonstration of his device is promised within a short time. The secretary of this company is Mr. Edward Fischer Brown, of 150 Nassau Street, New York City. Many years of Mr. Brown's career have been devoted to the study of aerial navigation. He is a poet well known on the East Side as well as an ardent advocate of Zionism. He has been connected as secretary and treasurer of the Liberal Emmigration League, a philanthropic institution and has assisted many hundreds of emigrants in entering the port of New York. As soon as the patent rights will be protected, photographs and detailed data will appear iu this publication.
CASPAR WHITNEY, IN "OUTING".
With the loyal object of hanging upon the Pole the beautiful Aero Club Hot with which, at a New York love feast recently he was presented,
Walter Wellman is preparing to float northward. Mr. Wellman is of a hopeful nature; with a sand bag or so, a few personal belongings, and, let us pray, something material to cheer the journey through the light, hot air, he will take seat beneath his huge gas bag and trust for the best. Since he will have very little more control over the direction of his balloon than either you or I sitting comfortably on earth, it is well his nature is thus hopeful.
To the less spectacular, if more practical, mind a trip across the Atlantic or even across New Jersey might suggest itself—especially since chance of reaching the Pole would seem to be equally as good from that starting point as Spitzbergen. Of course there might not be so much advertising in it—and we should like to see Mr. Wellman get all the notoriety he courts—and return to enjoy it.
For the rest, we cannot take Wellman and his gas bag seriously; aerial navigation has not yet advanced beyond the mere toy stage with the longest of its flights still within eye range. As for sending up a balloon to be blown whither the wind listeth—well, I hope Wellman is provided with a stout drag and a long rope.
Perhaps Mr. Whitney has not heard of the Wright Brothers whose flight of over twenty-four miles in a heavier-than-air machine is a matter of record. We would consider this distance beyond ordinary "eye range."
AMERICAN AI AG AZI NE OF AERONAUTICS
FITTED WITH A
is especially adapted for the use of balloonists on account of its light weight, small size and the superiority of the lens.
Can be focused at the level of the eye, it takes pictures AS WE SEE THEM which no other camera will do when focusing at the height of the chest.
For time and instantaneous exposures. The official camera of this magazine
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C P. GOERZ AMERICAN OPTICAL CO.
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BERLIN LONDON PARIS VIENNA
NAVIGATING THE AIR
by the scientific and active members of the aero club of america
An interesting record of the personal experiences of the twenty-four men most distinguished to-day in the art and science of flying.
THAT THE PROBLEM OF AERIAL NAVIGATION HAS AT LAST BEEN SOLVED
is announced by such authorities as Dr. Alexander Graham Bell;
and this book gives for the first time an authentic summary of the S^
present state of Aeronautics. ^
MO na<rp<! 32 pages of photographs showing hn- CI AC nnst nairi S
.JUU pages, portant developments in this new science. 4>l-00 POM pdiu X.r>\ <S-
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POCKET BOOK OF AERONAUTICS
By Major Hermann W. L. Moedebeck
Cloth, 496 pages, $3.25
"Major Moedebeck is already too well-known to stand in need of any introduction ; for many years past he has been one of the leading spirits in German Aeronautical circles. It was in no slight degree due to his efforts that several of the German Aero Clubs, and in particular the Aero Club of the upper Rhine, were founded ; for years be edited the journal of the Berlin Club, previously to founding the Illustrierte Aeronautische Mitteilungen, at Strassburg. The present book serves as an introduction to the study of the history of Aeronautics ; and as such we have rarely met with a more lucid and clearly stated résumé of one of the most fascinating pages in the world's history. The future of aerial locomotion, again, is touched upon in the final chapters of this really valuable and eminently sane book ; not the least of the merits of which consists of the splendid series of illustrations and photographs, for the greater part taken by the author himself."—Batlooning and Aeronautics.
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AIRSHIP BALDWIN'S CALIFORNIA ARROW" Patented.
The "CALIFORNIA ARROW" was the first airship, the one from which all the present airships have been copied, and has made more successful flights than all the others put together.
I GUARANTEE ALL MY EXHIBITIONS.
Last season, out of 53 starts I returned to the exact starting point 51 times.
at the ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION operated by Roy knabenshue
at the PORTLAND EXPOSITION operated
by Lincoln Beachy
I have ballooned around the world twice, giving ascensions in almost every country you can think of, including North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, etc.
I design and manufacture, Free Balloons, Captive Balloons, Airships, and in fact everything in the hydrogen line of aeronautics. Information relative to dates and terms, cheerfully furnished upon request.
Send for my new book "UP in the air."
Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, Airship "CALIFORNIA ARROW"
Box 78 Madison square p. o. New York City.
FOR SALE—Complete Captive Balloon Outfit.
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FOREIGN AERONAUTICAL JOURNALS.
IV AERO NA UTI QUE Official Publication of the Aeronautique Club de France Subscription, Quarterly 58 Rue J. J. Rousseau,
3 francs. Pans.
ILLUSTRIERTE AERONAUTISCHE MITTEILUNGEN Official Organ of the Deutscher Luftschiffer-Verband Subscription, Monthly Karl J. Trubner,
17 francs. Strasbourg (Alsace)
VOSDOUCHOPLAVATEL Subscription, ("The Aeronaut") Ertelew 18,
15 francs. St. Petersburg.
L'AERO-REVUE Bulletin of the Aero Club du Rhone and Sud-Est Subscription, Monthly 4 Rue St-Gervais,
9 francs. Montplaisir-Lyon.
BOLLETTINO DELLA SOCIETA AERONAUTICA ITALIANA Subscription, Monthly 70 Via della Muratte,
18 francs. Rome.
LA REVUE DE L'AVIATION Subscription, Monthly 104 Rue de Richelieu,
8 francs. Paris.
Subscription, Quarterly 14 Rue des Goncourt,
2 50 francs. _ Paris.
AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL Official Organ of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain
Quarterly 27 Chancery Lane,
London, W. C.
THE CAR ILLUSTRATED A weekly Journal of Travel By Land, Sea and Air
Subscription, 1/16/ro 168 Picadilly, London, W.
L'AEROPHILE Official Bulletin of the Aero Club of France Subscription, Monthly 84 Faubourg St. Honore,
12 francs. Paris.
BULLETIN OF THE AERO CLUB SUISSE Subscription, Bi-monthly Imprimerie Haller,
5 francs. Berne.
BALLOONING AND AERONAUTICS Subscription, Monthly 45 Grafton St.,
18 shillings. Tottenham Ct. Rd., London, W.
LA CONQUETE DE L'AIR Official Organ of the Aero Club de Belgique Subscription, Bi-monthly 214 Rue Royale,
4.50 francs. - Brussels.
WIENER LUFTSCHIFFER-ZEITUNG Official Organ of the Wiener Aero Club Subscription, 12 kronen.. Monthly 1 St. Aunahof, Vienna.
L'AERONAUTE Official Organ of Societe Francais de Navigation Aerienne Subscription, 8 francs. Monthly 19 Rue Blanche, Paris.